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Current Drug Abuse Reviews
ISSN (Print): 1874-4737
ISSN (Online): 1874-4745
VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 1
DOI: 10.2174/18744737112059990004









Salvia divinorum: A Psychopharmacological Riddle and a Mind-Body Prospect

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Author(s): José-Luis Díaz
Pages 43-53 (11)
Abstract:
The multidisciplinary research on Salvia divinorum and its chemical principles is analyzed concerning whether the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, mental effects, and neuropharmacology of this sacred psychoactive plant and main principle clarify its experienced effects and divinatory uses. The scientific pursuit spans from the traditional practices, continues with the botanical identification, isolation of active molecules, characterization of mental and neural effects, possible therapeutic applications, and impinges upon the mind-body problem. The departure point is ethnopharmacology and therefore the traditional beliefs, ritual uses, and mental effects of this Mazatec sacred mint recorded during a 1973- 1983 field research project are described. A water potion of crushed leaves produced short-lasting light-headedness, dysphoria, tactile and proprioceptive sensations, a sense of depersonalization, amplified sound perception, and an increase visual and auditory imagery, but not actual hallucinations. Similar effects were described using questionnaires and are attributable to salvinorin A, but cannot be explained solely by its specific and potent brain kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. Some requirements for a feasible classification and mechanism of action of consciousness-altering products are proposed and include the activation of neural networks comprising several neurochemical systems. Top-down analyses should be undertaken in order to characterize such neural networks and eventually allowing to explore the differential ethnic effects. As is the case for other consciousness-altering preparations, a careful and encompassing research on this plant and principle can be consequential to endeavors ranging from the mind-body problem, a better understanding of shamanic ecstasy, to the potential generation of analgesic, antidepressant, and drug-abuse attenuating products.
Keywords:
Consciousness-altering drugs, ethnopharmacology, kappa opioid receptor agonist, Mazatec shamanism, mechanism of action, mind-body problem, Salvia divinorum, salvinorin.
Affiliation:
Cerrada de Cruz Verde 29-B, Lomas Quebradas, México, D.F. 10000, México.