In hemin-treated SHR, several proteins related to oxidative-stress and metabolism were modulated. Particularly, hemin enhanced aldolase- B, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, purine-nucleoside phosphorylase, adenosine-kinase, argininosuccinate synthetase and carbonic anhydrase-3 all of which are enzymes involved in glucose/energy metabolism and pH homeostasis. Similarly, hemin potentiated antioxidant pathways including, NADP(+)-dependant isocitrate-dehydrogenase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase-Yb1 and hsp70, a pleiotropic agent that regulates protein-folding, oxidative/pro-inflammatory events. Hemin also increased enzymes implicated in cell-growth such as the nitrilase-protein-family, but reduced betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, an enzyme associated with insulin resistance and dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Furthermore, hemin increased ANP and its surrogate marker, urinary cGMP, but reduced ET-1, PTP-1B, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, whereas the HO-inhibitor, chromium-mesoporphyrin abolished the effects.
The potentiation of ANP, urinary-cGMP, aldolade-B, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, purine-nucleoside phosphorylase, adenosine-kinase, argininosuccinate synthetase, carbonic anhydrase-3, hsp70 and the corresponding reduction of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, PTP-1B, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and ET-1 may be responsible for the improved glucose metabolism in hemin-treated animals.
Collectively, these findings underscore the pleiotropic effects of the HO-system in cellular homeostasis with important roles in metabolism and defence.