This study investigated the acute toxicity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of eleven Jamaican medicinal plants
against Thiara granifera (Lamarck, 1758). The plants were Annona muricata L., Blighia sapida Koenig, Croton linearis
Jacq., Eupatorium odoratum L., Ficus benjamina L., Gossypium barbadense L., Guaiacum officinale L., Pithecellobium
unguis-cati (L.) Benth., Psidium guajava L., Sida acuta Burm. and Terminalia catappa L. Extracts with a 24hr LC50 value
greater than 50 mgL-1 or a 24hr LC90 value greater than 100 mgL-1 were deemed to lack significant molluscicidal activity.
G. officinale, C. linearis, E. odoratum and P. unguis-cati were highly active. The potencies as indicated by the 24hr LC50
values (mgL-1) in brackets, of the aqueous and ethanol extracts were in the order: G. officinale (1.7) > C. linearis (29.1) >
E. odoratum (54.1), and P. unguis-cati (3.0) > G. officinale (7.6) > E. odoratum (27.6), respectively. The aqueous extract
of G. officinale and the ethanol extracts of G. officinale and P. unguis-cati were more potent than the synthetic
molluscicide, Plantgard Slug and Snail Liquid® (24hr LC50 = 18.3 mgL-1). The secondary metabolites of the aqueous and
ethanol extracts of G. officinale, C. linearis and E. odoratum were also investigated. The aqueous extracts all contained
saponins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The ethanol extracts contained saponins, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids and
reducing compounds for G. officinale, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids for C. linearis and flavonoids,
triterpenes and steroids for E. odoratum.
Acute toxicity, medicinal plants, secondary metabolites, Thiara granifera.
Department of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.