Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an increasingly common and severe condition that confers substantial morbidity
and mortality. In advanced CHF, progressive functional impairment of renal function and structural renal disease
may eventually develop. This condition has been recognized and is increasingly referred to as one manifestation of the
cardiorenal syndromes (CRS), particularly its subtypes 1 and 2. These are defined by either acute or chronic deterioration
in renal function depending on the rate of progression of CHF. This review first briefly highlights important features of
the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CHF, then defines and briefly describes the various cardiorenal syndromes
and their unique features. Recent patents for diagnosis and treatment of the cardiorenal syndromes 1 and 2 are
then presented in the patent review coverage section and summarized in a table. Patents and patent applications on pharmacotherapeutics
including novel diuretic agents, natriuretic peptides, endothelin antagonists, vasodilators and renal drug
delivery systems, vasopressin receptor antagonists, among other compounds are presented. In addition, device-based patents
for renal sympathoadrenergic denervation or modulation, isolated transluminal renal perfusion, bio-artificial cellbased
therapies and implantable fluid removal devices, among others, are a special focus of this review. Potential future
developments are also touched upon in conclusion.
Biomarkers, cardiorenal, cardiorenal syndrome, patents, renocardiac sydrome.
Med. Klinik III., Klinikum Coburg, Ketschendorfer Strasse 33, 96450 Coburg, Germany.