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Current Nutrition & Food Science
ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881
VOLUME: 9
ISSUE: 4
DOI: 10.2174/15734013113096660015      Price:  $58









Bioactive Fish Fatty Acids: Health Effects and Their Use as Functional Food Ingredients

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Author(s): Deborah Pacetti, Massimo Mozzon, Paolo Lucci and Natale G. Frega
Pages 283-297 (15)
Abstract:
The nutritional benefits of fish or fish oil consumption lies predominantly in its advantageous fatty acid profile, which is rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFA). Evidence from a large number of epidemiological studies, clinical studies and intervention trials have established the protective effect of ω3 PUFA against several diseases. New experimental evidence also indicates the presence in fish oils of other class of bioactive fatty acids, such as the furan fatty acid (F-acids). Dietary recommendations suggest that the consumption of ω3 PUFA should be increased. The great variability of fatty acid composition of fish species throughout the year should be considered when fish are suggested as a means of improving health or used for oil extraction.

The fish oil remains the principal source of ω3 PUFA as an ingredient into conventional food products enrichment and in ω3 PUFA concentrates production (i.e. integrator, nutraceutical), even if a variety of alternative ω3 PUFA sources, such as bacteria, fungi, plants and microalgae are currently being explored for commercial production. The present review summarizes the beneficial effects of ω3 PUFA dietary supplementation on cardiovascular disease, neurological disorder and type 2 diabetes as well as the biological actions of F-acids. Furthermore, in order to present the fish as a dietary source of bioactive fatty acids, differences in fatty acid composition of various fish species are recognized. The alternative ways to ensure an optimal ω3 PUFA intake are also provided by illustrating the possible applications of fish oil on the ω3 PUFA enrichment of functional foods.

Keywords:
Bioactive foods, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oil, food enrichment, functional food, furan fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Affiliation:
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche - Via Brecce Bianche - 60131 Ancona (Italy).