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Current HIV Research
ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251
VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1570162X113116660059









Epitope Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity [ADCC] Responses

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Author(s): Justin Pollara, Mattia Bonsignori, M. Anthony Moody, Marzena Pazgier, Barton F. Haynes and Guido Ferrari
Pages 378-387 (10)
Abstract:
Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC] has been suggested to play an important role in control of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 [HIV-1] viral load and protection from infection. ADCC antibody responses have been mapped to multiple linear and conformational epitopes within the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Many epitopes targeted by antibodies that mediate ADCC overlap with those recognized by antibodies capable of virus neutralization. In addition, recent studies conducted with human monoclonal antibodies derived from HIV-1 infected individuals and HIV-1 vaccine-candidate vaccinees have identified a number of antibodies that lack the ability to capture primary HIV-1 isolates or mediate neutralizing activity, but are able to bind to the surface of infected CD4+ T cells and mediate ADCC. Of note, the conformational changes in the gp120 that may not exclusively relate to binding of the CD4 molecule are important in exposing epitopes recognized by ADCC responses. Here we discuss the HIV-1 envelope epitopes targeted by ADCC antibodies in the context of the potential protective capacities of ADCC.
Keywords:
AIDS vaccines, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, epitope, HIV-1, humoral responses, monoclonal antibodies.
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2926, Durham, NC 27710, USA.