On the one hand, a number of compounds have been investigated, either using in vitro cultured parasites and/or applying to in vivo rodent models. Tested compounds include BZ derivatives such as flubendazole, and oxfendazole, as well as other anti-infective agents like ivermectin, nitazoxanide, genistein, artemisinin, timol, rapamycin, and anti-cancer agents such as 2-methoxyestradiol and cyclosporine A. Although some of these compounds showed promising activities in vitro, and also in the rodent models, they have not been yet translated to clinical applications.
On the other hand, different drug delivery systems have been developed in order to improve the efficacy of several active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as oil in water emulsion, liposomes and nanoparticles among others.
The present review article summarizes the chemotherapeutic state-of-the-art and the research done in the field of drug delivery systems regarded human echinococcosis.