This review is related to the process development for batteries and related waste. The review’s primary focus is
the metal recovery and remediation of the following types of battery waste: alkaline (Zn-MnO2), saline (Zn-carbon),
lithium (Li-SOCl2, Li-MnO2), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-CoO2,
Li-MnO2) and lithium-polymer. Various treatments have been developed to diminish the impact of hazardous metals on
the environment and to preserve the valuable metal (e.g., Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) resources. Three main
technological approaches, namely, pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and physical treatments, have been proposed. This
paper covers the developments in the field of technology for metal recovery from battery waste based on an analysis of 14
Battery waste, hydrometallurgy, metal, physical treatment, pyrometallurgy, recycling.
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-ETE), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, C.P. 7500, Quebec, QC, Canada, G1X 9A9.