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Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
ISSN (Print): 1389-5575
ISSN (Online): 1875-5607
VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 3
DOI: 10.2174/1389557514666140219114045      Price:  $58









Current Protein-based Anti-angiogenic Therapeutics

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Author(s): Sanjukta Chakrabarti, Colin J. Barrow, Rupinder K. Kanwar, Venkata Ramana and Jagat R. Kanwar
Pages 291-312 (22)
Abstract:
Angiogenesis is a multistep process for the formation of new blood vessels. Interactions between several cellular factors including growth factors, cytokines and hematopoietic factors lead to activation of various cellular pathways finally resulting in the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Normally, angiogenesis is an essential requirement for vascular development in growing embryos as well as in adult tissues where this process depends on the intricate balance between the activities of the pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Abnormal angiogenesis results in aberrant vasculature leading to various pathological conditions. The most important factor implicated in angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its family of ligands and receptors. Several anti-angiogenic drugs have been developed and many more are currently in different phases of clinical trials, which target various angiogenesis-inducing agents including VEGF, VEGF receptors, angiopoietins and ECM components such as integrins. Anti-angiogenic therapy can be divided into gene-based therapy and protein-based therapy. Gene-based therapies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, aptamers, catalytic oligonucleotides including ribozymes and DNAzymes and transcription decoys. Protein-based therapeutics includes monoclonal antibodies, peptidomimetics, fusion proteins and decoy receptors. The later class of therapeutics has several advantages over gene-based and small molecule drugs, including specificity and complexity in functions, better tolerability, less interference with normal biological processes and lesser adverse effects due to decreased immune response by virtue of being mostly body’s natural proteins. This review provides a comprehensive overview of angiogenesis and on the current protein-based anti-angiogenic therapeutics under research and in the clinic.
Keywords:
Angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic drugs, clinical trials, Fc-fusion proteins, VEGF, VEGF receptors.
Affiliation:
Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR), School of Medicine (SoM), Molecular and Medical Research (MMR) Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds Campus, Geelong, Victoria, Australia 3216.