Tumor progression and metastasis are linked to cellular metabolism. Cancer cells, being highly proliferative,
show significant alterations in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, respiration, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative
phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Metabolites like peptides, nucleotides, products of
glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acids, and steroids can be an important read out of disease when characterized in biological
samples such as tissues and body fluids like urine, serum, etc. The cancer metabolome has been studied since the
1960s by analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Current research is focused on the identification and validation of biomarkers in the cancer metabolome that can stratify
high-risk patients and distinguish between benign and advanced metastatic forms of the disease. In this review, we discuss
the current state of prostate cancer metabolomics, the biomarkers that show promise in distinguishing indolent from aggressive
forms of the disease, the strengths and limitations of the analytical techniques being employed, and future applications
of metabolomics in diagnostic imaging and personalized medicine of prostate cancer.
Biomarker, castration-resistant prostate cancer, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, metabolomics,
metabolic imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance, prostate cancer.
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251-1892, USA.