Nowadays, in the treatment guidelines of bipolar disorders, lithium is recommended as first-line maintenance therapy. What is worth mentioning is that the number of indications is growing e.g. major depressive disorder. There were also performed a lot of meta-analyses focused on antisuicidal effect of lithium therapy.
In this paper, based on available and most recent literature, we presented the indications for the use of lithium such as mania, prevention of bipolar disorder, preventing the occurrence of depression episodes in major depressive disorder. It is worth noting that some studies indicate lithium as the only medicine with proven effect on mood stabilization. Interactions between lithium and other medicines were in details described. In this paper we also described and discuss possible side effects of the therapy with lithium e.g. renal failure, hypothyroidism and hyperparathyroidism, weight gain, teratogenicity.