For many years, cisplatin has been used to treat many types of cancer, including urogenital, skin and lung
cancers. Unfortunately, treatment with this drug causes serious side effects, such as severe toxicity; including
nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, peripheral neuropathy, ototoxicity, asthenia and hematological
toxicity.Therefore, the clinical use of cisplatin has been hampered.The incidence of nephrotoxicity frequently prevents the
use of high enough doses to maximize the antineoplastic effects, and strict attention must be given to the hydration of
cisplatin-treated patients to minimize kidney damage.Nanobiotechnology, or nanomedicine, was developed to mitigate, or
even eliminate,the toxic effects of pharmaceutical compounds; for example, drug-targeting systems were developed to
enable site specificity and to control the delivery drug. Therefore, biomedical nanotechnology researchers attempted to
develop nanostructures not only to deliver chemotherapeutics to the desired treatment site but also to control when and
how quickly the compounds are released. To achieve these ends, a drug can either be encapsulated in a matrix or attached
to a particle surface. Studies concerning the encapsulation of cisplatin in liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid
nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, as well as the immobilization of cisplatin on metallic nanoparticles, have already
been published. The association of cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapeutics, with nanotechnology is currently one
of the most exciting areas of research. In this mini-review, cisplatin will be discussed in terms of its efficacy against many
cancers, including bladder cancer. Additionally, established nanostructure-based drug delivery systems for cisplatin and
their efficacy against different types of cancer will be reviewed. Because cisplatin is a standard treatment with good
performance statistics and with an effective renal function-glomerular filtration rate, we expect that this review will be
helpful for future research.
Cancer therapy, cisplatin, drug delivery system, nanobiotechnology, nanoparticles, urogenital cancer.
NanobioLab, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Riberao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, CP: 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.