Methods: A systematic review of the literature was made by searching the following terms in Medline: “schizophrenia or psychosis or psychotic” AND “inflamm* or immun* or cytokine or IL-* or TNF-* or kynureni* or KYNA”, AND “cognit* or attention or memory or executive function”.
Results: Seventy five papers were identified using the selected terms, and seven papers were included in the review. Papers excluded focused mainly on basic research or other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Conclusions: Recent findings link inflammatory markers to cognition in schizophrenia, suggesting that inflammation is associated with worst cognitive performance. Microglial activation, monoaminergic imbalance, brain abnormalities and the kynurenine pathway are possible mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Clinical trials with addition of immunomodulatory drugs have shown promising results, opening new windows to tackle cognition in schizophrenia.