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Current Drug Delivery
ISSN (Print): 1567-2018
ISSN (Online): 1875-5704
Epub Full Text Article
DOI: 10.2174/1567201811666140619121728      Price:  $95

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Treatment Modalities and Recent Insights

Author(s): V Sukhithasri, Vivek Vinod, Sarath Varma and Raja Biswas
Antimicrobial therapy of infections caused by M. tuberculosis is a challenge due to poor response to therapy and recurrent infections. Under in vitro conditions, antibiotics effectively kill M. tuberculosis within the first two weeks. However, an extended treatment time of 6-9 months is required to eradicate M. tuberculosis infection, mainly due to intracellular survival of this pathogen and the poor penetration of the antibiotics into the intracellular compartment of the host cells. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to use of different antibiotic incorporated nanoformulations such as liposomes, polymeric particles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions for targeted drug delivery applications into the intracellular compartment of the macrophages. The drug incorporated nanoparticles are prone to be easily internalized, which leads to preferential delivery of the drugs into the tissues and organs of interest. Another advantage of nanoparticles over the free drugs is their comparatively higher stability and bioavailability. This review highlights the current treatment strategies, challenges in treatment, availability of different antibiotics, their mode of actions, mechanism of generation of drug resistance and recent advances in intracellular drug delivery using nanoparticles for the treatment of tuberculosis
Antibiotics, cytokines, intracellular pathogen, immune response, macrophages, nanoparticles, tuberculosis
Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, AIMS – Ponekkara, Cochin, Kerala, India – 682041