Atrial, ventricular and atrioventricular septal defects are the most common cardiac anomalies in the
humans and occur isolated or as part of other malformations in more than the half of children with a congenital
cardiac anomaly. Whereas atrial defects are difficult to detect antenatally, ventricular and atrioventricular defects
are detectable on two-dimensional and color Doppler ultrasound. Three-dimensional ultrasound as STIC
technology allows in fetal septal defects on one hand a safe description and documentation of the finding and on
the other hand a spatial demonstration of the defect with the possibility of getting new views into the heart. The
choice of the ideal plane from a 3D volume enables to get the in-line visualization of the interventricular septum
with the septal defect. Orthogonal views help to visualize the defect in the different planes. Tomographic imaging
aids in getting the upper abdomen and the great vessels information in addition to the septal defect view, in order
to rule out a complex malformation. Rendering mode with the enface view can be used to visualize the septum
from a lateral view and the common atrioventricular valve in atrioventricular septal defects. The combination
with color Doppler helps to get the spatial demonstration of the defect within the heart and provide in addition
information on flow events during the cardiac cycle in septal defects.
Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, Fetal echocardiography,
Spatial Temporal Image Correlation, Three-dimensional ultrasound.
Prenatal Diagnosis and Human Genetics, Berlin, Germany