A review is given about the current state-of-the-art surrounding micro/nano scale welding/joining used in miniaturization or microsystems. Except for reviewing the applications of micro/nano welding/joining in various fields, such as microelectromechanical system (MEMS), micro total-analysis systems (μTAS), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) etc., the optimal equipments for micro/nano welding/joining, its corresponding future applications and research directions are discussed. Moreover, an extensive part of the paper is devoted to the introduction of new techniques, micro/nano laser and electron beam welding/joining. In turn, it is anticipated these techniques will be used in future micro/nano welding/joining applications. Meanwhile, because even smallest particles of dust can influence the results, more considerations are given to machine improvements that are required for its corresponding nano welding/joining. It will be one challenge for Refforts to combine the progress in micro/nano scales with that in miniaturization. This review provides a timely explanation of the literature surrounding the factors required for successful micro and nano welding/joining.
Micro/nano welding, microsystem, laser, electron beam, microelectromechanical system (MEMS), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micro total-analysis systems (μTAS)
Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.