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Recent Patents on Biomarkers
ISSN (Print): 2210-3090
ISSN (Online): 2210-3104
VOLUME: 1
ISSUE: 2
DOI: 10.2174/2210309011101020139









Recent Patents on Cancer Stem Cell Biomarkers

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Author(s): Vassiliki Zacharioudaki and Luc Leyns
Pages 139-149 (11)
Abstract:
Following the “hierarchy model” of cancer evolution, which describes tumors as assemblies of biologically distinct cells, many researchers have focused on a subpopulation of cancer cells having “stem cell properties” and claimed to be the one that can initiate and maintain tumor growth. Those cells termed “Cancer Stem Cells” (CSCs) or “Cancer Initiating Cells” (CICs) retain the properties of self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation and tumor initiation in vitro and in vivo and are shown in several cancers to be the cells responsible for long-term maintenance of tumor growth. Additionally, resistance to irradiation and chemotherapy and high frequency of tumor relapse are ascribed to the existence of CSCs within the tumor bulk. Therefore, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs, thus driving to novel approaches in cancer therapeutics, is gaining considerable interest in cancer research field. This review will thereby focus on patents on recent progress in the development of methods for the isolation, purification and preparation of enriched populations of CSCs from tumors. This is based on the expression of biomarkers, such as cell surface antigens, marker genes, miRNAs and transcription factors. In some patent cases, CSCs were detected and isolated based on their different gene expression profiles and signatures. Following CSC biomarker mapping, many inventors proceed to the description of methods using CSCs in assessing the prognosis and treatment of cancer. The granted patents and patent applications reviewed here mainly focus on breast, nervous system and colon cancers.
Keywords:
Biomarkers, cancer, cancer stem cells (CSCs), detection, diagnosis, enrichment, isolation, prognosis, treatment, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Androgen Receptor, B-lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion region, Chronic Myelogenous Leucemia, Glioblastoma Multiforme, retinal pigment epithelium, xenopus laevis, stromal cell-derived inducing activity, embryogenesis
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Cell Genetics,Department of Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.