Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) develops due to a number of risk factors, including infection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The genetic predisposition also plays an important role in deregulating different signaling pathways including the NF-KB pathway. Certain polymorphisms are reported to affect the NF-kB pathway genes.
Objectives: The present research was conducted to study the association of HPV with NF-KB1 (p50) gene polymorphisms in HNC patients of the Pakistani population.
Methods: Genomic DNA from HNC tumors samples was extracted using the Exgene SV DNA extraction Kit. Allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing were done for analysis of NF-κB1 SNPs 94ins/del (rs28362491), rs1598858 and rs4648068.
Results: The genotypes AGrs1598858, AGrs4648068 and GGrs4648068 were associated with significantly increased risk of head and neck cancer in studied population. Furthermore the HNC cases with genotypes AGrs1598858 and GGrs4648068 displayed growing risk of HPV related cancers. Promotor region SNP 94ins/del (rs28362491) was not detected in studied population. Tobacco use, lymph nodes involvement and poorly differentiated tumors were positively associated with HPV induced cancers.
Conclusion: It is the first comprehensive study from Pakistan, to evaluate the polymorphic variants of NF-κB1. Genotypes AGrs4648068, GGrs4648068, and AGrs1598858 of NF-κB1 gene are associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers in the studied HPV infected Pakistani population. It can be concluded that HPV infection, involvement of lymph nodes and tobacco use can act synergetic and add up in modulating HPV induced HNC with intronic SNPs of NF-κB1 gene in Pakistani population.