Generic placeholder image

Current Traditional Medicine


ISSN (Print): 2215-0838
ISSN (Online): 2215-0846

General Review Article

A Prospective Review on Phyto-pharmacological Aspects of Vitex negundo Linn

Author(s): Mohd Faisal Khan, Poonam Arora* and Mahaveer Dhobi*

Volume 7, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 21 October, 2019

Page: [138 - 150] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666191021161005

Price: $65


Background: Vitex negundo Linn. commonly known as five leave chase tree is an ethnobotanically important drug in traditional system of medicine. The plant is widely distributed in India, China and other Asian and American countries.

Objective: The review aims at presenting comprehensive information with respect to ethnopharmacological relevance and recent findings on phytochemical and biological activities of Vitex negundo.

Method: Literature was collected from various sources such as pubmed, scopus, science direct, and others.

Results: Extracts and secondary metabolites of this plant, particularly those from roots and leaves, possess useful pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, galactagogue, antigastric, antiflatulant, antiparasitic, analgesic, hepatoprotective and antihypertensive, some of which have been validated scientifically. All parts of the plant especially leave and roots contain a large number of bioactive phytoconstituents including flavonoids, iridoids, lignans, volatile oil, terpenes, coumarins, phenolic and steroidal compounds which impart multiple medicinal properties. Vitexin, isovitexin, viridifol, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid are the main components.

Conclusion: The review emphasizes the medicinal importance of Vitex negundo and its bioactive constituents in the traditional system of medicine.

Keywords: Vitex negundo Linn., ethnopharmacological, anti-inflammatory, bioactive phytoconstituents, hepatoprotective.

Graphical Abstract
Parmar KM, Shende PR, Katare N, Dhobi M, Prasad SK. Wound healing potential of Solanum xanthocarpum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2018; 70(10): 1389-400.
[] [PMID: 29984407]
Karan V, Dhobi M, Khullar S, et al. Norneolignans from the roots of Clitoria ternatea L. Tetrahedron Lett 79: 1022-6.
Arora P, Ansari SH, Anjum V, Mathur R, Ahmad S. Investigation of anti-asthmatic potential of Kanakasava in ovalbumin-induced bronchial asthma and airway inflammation in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2017; 197: 242-9.
[] [PMID: 27502540]
Ganapaty S, Vidyadhar K. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of Vitex-a review. J Nat Rem 2005; 5(2): 75-95.
Muthuswamy U, Kuppusamy A, Nandagopi U, et al. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Tanzan J Health Res 2012; 14(1): 1-1.
[PMID: 26591739]
Venkateswarlu K. Vitex negundo: Medicinal values, biological activities, toxic studies, phytopharmacological actions. Inter J Pharm Phytopharmcol Res 2012; 2(2): 126-33.
Kumar M, Rawat P, Dixit P, et al. Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 2010; 17(13): 993-9.
[ PMID: 20554183]
Vishwanathan AS, Basavaraju R. A review on Vitex negundo L. A medicinally important plant. EJBS 2010; 3(1): 30-42.
Anonymous . The Wealth of India, Raw Materials CSIR (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research) New Delhi 2003; 10: 158-60.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Government of India Publication; New Delhi 2001; Part 1.3: 142-4.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants International Book Distributors, Dehradun 2008; 3: 1973-40.
Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda CCRAS Publication. New Delhi: Reprint Edition 2005; Vol. 3: pp. 450-71.
Gupta AK, Tandon N, Madhu S. Quality standards of Indian Medicinal Plants. Indian Council of Medical Research New Delhi 2008; 3: 130-5.
Mahalakshmi R, Rajesh P, Ramesh N, et al. Hepatoprotective activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) by using Wistar albino rats in ibuprofen induced model. Int J Pharmacol 2010; 6(5): 658-63.
Khokra SL, Prakash O, Jain S, Aneja KR, Dhingra Y. Essential oil composition and antibacterial studies of Vitex negundo Linn. extracts. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008; 70(4): 522-6.
[] [PMID: 20046787]
Gautam L, Shrestha S, Wagle P, et al. Chemical constituents from Vitex negundo (Linn.) of nepalese origin. Sci World 2008; 6(6): 27-32.
Chandramu C, Manohar RD, Krupadanam DG, Dashavantha RV. Isolation, characterization and biological activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid from Vitex negundo L. Phytother Res 2003; 17(2): 129-34.
[] [PMID: 12601674]
Ling TJ, Ling WW, Chen YJ, et al. Antiseptic activity and phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. Molecules 2010; 15(11): 8469-77.
[ ] [PMID: 21088661]
Chawla AS, Sharma AK, Handa SS, Dhar KL. Chemical investigation and anti-inflammatory activity of Vitex negundo seeds. J Nat Prod 1992; 55(2): 163-7.
[] [PMID: 1624939]
Zheng CJ, Tang WZ, Huang BK, et al. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for analgesic properties and constituents of Vitex negundo L. seeds. Phytomedicine 2009; 16(6-7): 560-7.
[] [PMID: 19181504]
Khare CP. Encyclopedia Indian Medicinal Plant-Rational western therapy, Ayurvedic and other traditional usage, Botany. Springer New York 2004.
Banerji A, Chadha M, Malshet V. Isolation of 5-hydroxy-3, 6, 7, 3′, 4′-pentamethoxy flavone from Vitex negundo. Phytochemistry 1969; 8(2): 511-2.
Sehgal C, Taneja S, Dhar K, et al. 2′-p-Hydroxybenzoyl mussaenosidic acid, a new iridoid glucoside from Vitex negundo. Phytochemistry 1982; 21(2): 363-6.
Dutta PK, Chowdhury US, Chakravarty AK, et al. Studies on Indian medicinal plants-part LXXV: Nishin-daside, a novel iridoid glycoside from Vitex negundo. Tetrahedron 1983; 39(19): 3067-72.
Singh V, Dayal R, Bartley JP. Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves. Planta Med 1999; 65(6): 580-2.
[] [PMID: 17260284]
Khare C. Encyclopedia Indian Medicinal Plant-Rational western therapy, Ayurvedic and other traditional us-age, Botany. New York: Springer 2004.
Surveswaran S, Cai Y-Z, Corke H, et al. Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 In-dian medicinal plants. Food Chem 2007; 102(3): 938-53.
Zheng C-J, Tang W-Z, Huang B-K, et al. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for analgesic properties and constituents of Vitex negundo L. seeds. Phytomedicine 2009; 16(6-7): 560-7.
[ ] [PMID: 19181504]
Azhar-Ul-Haq, Malik A, Anis I, et al. Enzyme inhibiting lignans from Vitex negundo. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2004; 52(11): 1269-72.
[] [PMID: 15520511]
Vishnoi SP, Shoeb A, Kapil RS, et al. A furanoeremophilane from Vitex negundo. Phytochemistry 1983; 22(2): 597-8.
Azhar-Ul-Haq, Malik A, Khan MT, et al. Tyrosinase inhibitory lignans from the methanol extract of the roots of Vitex negundo Linn. and their structure-activity relationship. Phytomedicine 2006; 13(4): 255-60.
[ PMID: 16492528]
Vishwanathan A, Basavaraju R. A review on Vitex negundo L.: A medicinally important plant. Eur J Biol Sci 2010; 3(1): 30-42.
Singh P, Mishra G, Srivastava S, et al. Phytopharmacological review of Vitex negundo (Sambhalu). Pharmacologyonline 2011; 2: 1355-85.
Rahman MS, Bhattacharya GN. Effects of leaf extract of Vitex negundo on Lathyrus satitus Linn. used to protect stored grains from insects. Curr Sci 1982; 51(8): 434-5.
Villaseñor IM, Lamadrid MR. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 104(1-2): 129-31.
[] [PMID: 16253452]
Herrera MM, Morgan AR, Vargas FD. Partial physicochemical and nutritional characterization of the fruit of Vitex mollis. J Food Compos Anal 2004; 17(2): 205-15.
Sarikurkcu C, Arisoy K, Tepe B, Cakir A, Abali G, Mete E. Studies on the antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of Vitexagnuscastus L. fruits from Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol 2009; 47(10): 2479-83.
[] [PMID: 19595732]
Hossain MM, Paul N, Sohrab MH, Rahman E, Rashid MA. Antibacterial activity of Vitex trifolia. Fitoterapia 2001; 72(6): 695-7.
[ PMID: 11543973]
Suksamrarn A, Sommechai C. Ecdysteroids from Vitex Species. Phytochemistry 1993; 32: 303.
Khan A, Naz S, Farooq U, et al. Bioactive chromone constituents from Vitex negundo alleviate pain and inflammation. J Pain Res 2017; 11: 95-102.
[] [PMID: 29343985]
Tandon VR, Gupta RK. Vitex negundo Linn (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J Med Res 2006; 124(4): 447-50.
[PMID: 17159267]
Kumar D, Dhobi M. Screening antianxiety and antioxidant profile of stems and leaves of blue variety of Clitoria ternatea L. Indian J Pharm Sci 2018; 79: 1022-05.
Tandon V, Gupta RK. Effect of Vitex negundo on oxidative stress. Int J Pharmacol 2005; 37: 38-40.
Tiwari OP, Tripathi YB. Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn. Food Chem 2007; 100: 1170-6.
Tandon V, Gupta RK. Histomorphological changes induced by Vitex negundo in albino rats. Int J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 176-7.
Tasduq SA, Kaiser PJ, Gupta BD, Gupta VK, Johri RK. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(23): 3693-709.
[] [PMID: 18595136]
Dharmasiri MG, Jayakody JRAC, Galhena G, Liyanage SS, Ratnasooriya WD. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 87(2-3): 199-206.
[ PMID: 12860308]
Arora P, Ansari SH, Najmi AK, Anjum V, Ahmad S. Investigation of anti-asthmatic potential of dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. in animal model of bronchial asthma. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2016; 12: 42.
[] [PMID: 27536321]
Anjum V, Arora P, Ansari SH, Najmi AK, Ahmad S. Antithrombocytopenic and immunomodulatory potential of metabolically characterized aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves. Pharm Biol 2017; 55(1): 2043-56.
[ PMID: 28836477]
Khan M, Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Insight into the bronchodilator activity of Vitex negundo. Pharm Biol 2015; 53(3): 340-4.
[ PMID: 25622948]
Patel J, Shah S, Deshpandey S, et al. Evaluation of anti asthmatic activity of leaves of V. negundo. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2009; 2(1): 81-6.
Petchi R, Vijaya C, Parasuraman S, et al. Anti-arthritic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo Linn., (Verbenaceae) in male albino Wistar rats. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2011; 2(2): 213-8.
Tandon VR, Gupta RK. An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49(2): 199-205.
[PMID: 16170989]
Gill BS, Alex JM. Navgeet, Kumar S. Missing link between microRNA and prostate cancer. Tumour Biol 2016; 37(5): 5683-704.
[] [PMID: 26822307]
Awale S, Linn TZ, Li F, et al. Identification of chrysoplenetin from Vitex negundo as a potential cytotoxic agent against PANC-1 and a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR-39). Phytother Res 2011; 25(12): 1770-5.
[ PMID: 21469236]
Díaz F, Chávez D, Lee D, et al. Cytotoxic flavone analogues of vitexicarpin, a constituent of the leaves of Vitex negundo. J Nat Prod 2003; 66(6): 865-7.
[] [PMID: 12828478]
Kim KM, Heo DR, Lee J, et al. 5,3′-Dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavanone exerts its anticancer and antiangiogenesis effects through regulation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human lung cancer cells. Chem Biol Interact 2015; 225: 32-9.
[] [PMID: 25446852]
Deng J, Zhang Y, Tan Z. Proliferation and apoptosis of choriocarcinoma cell JEG-3 induced by VB2 and its in vitro mechanism. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2013; 38(5): 476-82.
[PMID: 23719531]
Hu HY, Zhou J, Wan F, et al. Effect of Evn-50 on cell growth and apoptosis in tamoxifen-resistance human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/TAM-R. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2012; 41(5): 498-505.
[PMID: 23086641]
Liou CJ, Len WB, Wu SJ, Lin CF, Wu XL, Huang WC. Casticin inhibits COX-2 and iNOS expression via suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 158(Pt A): 310-6.
[] [PMID: 25446583]
Trapti R, Vijay B, Komal M, et al. Comparative Studies onAnthelmintic Activity of Moringa oleifera and Vitex negundo. Asian J Res Chem 2009; 2(2): 101.
Patel J, Deshpande SS. Anti-allergic and antioxidant activity of 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,3′,4′-Pentamethoxy Flavone isolated from leaves of Vitex negundo. AntiInflammatory Antiallergy Agents. Med Chem 2011; 10: 442.
Zaware BB, Nirmal SA, Baheti DG, Patil AN, Mandal SC. Potential of Vitex negundo roots in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Pharm Biol 2011; 49(8): 874-8.
[ PMID: 21591873]
Joshi K, Shukla ST, Rana M, et al. Evaluation and comparison of diuretic activity of leaf and root extract of plant Vitex negundo L. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2018; 6(9): 1994-2003.
Haq RU, Shah AU, Khan AU, et al. Antitussive and toxicological evaluation of Vitex negundo. Nat Prod Res 2012; 26(5): 484-8.
[ PMID: 21809956]
Chowdhury NY, Islam W, Khalequzzaman M. Insecticidal activity of compounds from the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Int J Trop Insect Sci 2011; 31(3): 174-81.
Chowdhury NY, Islam W, Khalequzzaman M. Insecticidal activities of the leaves of nishinda (Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae) against Tribolium castaneum Hbst. Pak Entomol 2009; 31: 25-32.
Kothandan S, Swaminathan R. Evaluation of in vitro antiviral activity of Vitex negundo L., Hyptis suaveolens (L) poit., Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., to Chikungunya virus. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014; 4(1): S111-5.
Gill BS, Mehra R. Navgeet, Kumar S. Vitex negundo and its medicinal value. Mol Biol Rep 2018; 45(6): 2925-34.
[ ] [PMID: 30311123]
Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014; 14(1): 511.
[ ] [PMID: 25524718]
Anbalagan S, Sankareswaran M, Moorthy M, et al. Phytochemical analysis and anti fungal activity of Vitex negundo leaf extracts against clinically isolated fungal pathogens. Ind J Applied Microbiol 2017; 20(2): 119-25.
Kannan M, Rajendran P, Vedha V, et al. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition by Vitex negundo L. leaf ex-tract and quantification of flavonoids in relation to anti-HIV activity. J Cell Mol Biol 2012; 10(2): 53-9.
Raama MJ, Venkataraman S, Meera R, et al. Phytochemical investigation and antipyretic activity of leaf ex-tract of Vitex negundo Linn. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010; 2(2): 1068-73.
Durairaj B, Muthu S, Shreedhar K. In vitro antivenom and antioxidant potential of Vitex negundo leaves (green and blue) against Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli) and Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom. Eur J Exp Biol 2014; 4(4): 207-19.
Sarvankumar G, Lalitha V, Sengottuvelu S, et al. Nephroprotective activity of Vitex negundo Linn bark against chemical induced toxicity in experimental rat 2011; (5-6).
Kanwal A, Mehla J, Kuncha M, et al. Anti-Amnesic Activity of Vitex Negundo in Scopolamine Induced Am-nesia in Rats. Pharmacol Pharm 2010; 1: 1-8.
Gupta RK, Tandon VR. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49(2): 163-70.
[PMID: 16170984]
Adnaik RS, Pai PT, Sapakal VD, et al. Anxiolytic activity of Vitex negundo Linn in experimental models of anxiety in mice Int J Green Pharm 2009; 243-7.
Sahare KN, Singh V. Antifilarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex negundo leaves in vitro. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013; 6(9): 689-92.
[] [PMID: 23827144]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy