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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Review Article

Immunological Disturbances and Neuroimaging Findings in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Comorbid Patients

Author(s): Andriana Kakanakova*, Stefan Popov and Michael Maes

Volume 20, Issue 9, 2020

Page: [759 - 769] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200228093935

Price: $65


Mood disorders and Major Depressive Disorder, in particular, appear to be some of the most common psychiatric disorders with a high rate of comorbidity most frequently of anxiety or substance abuse disorders (alcohol use disorder). In both cases – MDD and AUD, a number of immunological disturbances are observed, such as chronic mild inflammation response, increased level of cytokines, hypercortisolaemia, which lead to specific changes in brain neurotransmitter functions.

Some of the contemporary brain imaging techniques are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic spectroscopy which are most commonly used to assess the brain metabolism and functional connectivity changes such as altered responses to emotional stimuli in MDD or overactivation of ventromedial prefrontal areas during delayed and underactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal regions during impulsive reward decisions in AUD and dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate neurotransmitter systems, low NAA and myo-Inositol in both MDD and AUD.

Keywords: Major depressive disorder, Alcohol use disorder, Cytokines, Bacterial gut translocation, Neuroimaging, Immunological disturbances.

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