Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare and special form of osteoporosis, which is poorly known with regard to its etiology, pathophysiology and therapy. However, PLO can cause vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and height loss, which could cause further kyphosis of the spine. Therefore, PLO should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis when a woman presents with severe back pain during or after pregnancy. In our current study, we reviewed the novel literatures that demonstrate the current understanding of and treatment for PLO. In addition, we retrospectively studied four patients who suffered from back pain and VCFs during or after pregnancy. We also examine their clinical medicine treatment methods and outcomes in order to provide evidence for a better understanding of PLO and its relevant medical treatment.