Background: Enhydra fluctuans Lour, a tropical herb, commonly known as helencha or harkuch, belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is an edible semi-aquatic herbaceous vegetable plant with serrate leaves and grows commonly in different parts of the world. Enhydra fluctuans possesses potential pharmacological role against inflammation, cancer, diarrhea, microbial infection, diabetes, etc.
Aim: This review aims to provide the most current information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, chemical constituents, as well as the pharmacological activities of Enhydra fluctuans Lour.
Materials and Methods: The recently updated information on Enhydra fluctuans was gathered from scientific journals, books, and worldwide accepted scientific databases via a library and electronic search PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Springer, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley online library. All of the full-text articles and abstracts related to Enhydra were screened. The most important and relevant articles were carefully chosen for study in this review.
Results: Crude extracts and isolated compounds of Enhydra fluctuans Lour have been reported to be pharmacologically active against cytoprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiarrheal, antihelmintic, CNS depressant, hepatoprotective, thrombolytic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, phagocytic and cytotoxic, and neuroprotective potential activities.
Discussion: Phytochemical analysis from different studies has reported Germacranolide, Sesquiterpene lactone, Flavonoid, Essential oil, Steroid, Diterpenoid, Melampolide, Sesquiterpene lactone, and Isoflavone glycoside as major compounds of Enhydra fluctuans Lour.
Conclusion: However, more research is needed to explore the mode of action of bioactive components of the plant and its therapeutic capabilities.
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