General Review Article

Epigenetic Modifications in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: From Cellular Mechanisms to Therapeutics

Author(s): Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi*, Soheila Montazersaheb* and Yasin Bagheri

Volume 21, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 11 November, 2020

Page: [60 - 71] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1566523220999201111194554

Price: $65


Background: Epigenetic modification pattern is considered as a characteristic feature in blood malignancies. Modifications in the DNA methylation modulators are recurrent in lymphoma and leukemia, so that the distinct methylation pattern defines different types of leukemia. Generally, the role of epigenetics is less understood, and most investigations are focused on genetic abnormalities and cytogenic studies to develop novel treatments for patients with hematologic disorders. Recently, understanding the underlying mechanism of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially epigenetic alterations as a driving force in the development of ALL opens a new era of investigation for developing promising strategy, beyond available conventional therapy.

Objective: This review will focus on a better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer development and progression, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations in ALL including, DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. Other topics that will be discussed include the use of epigenetic alterations as a promising therapeutic target in order to develop novel, well-suited approaches against ALL.

Conclusion: According to the literature review, leukemogenesis of ALL is extensively influenced by epigenetic modifications, particularly DNA hyper-methylation, histone modification, and miRNA alteration.

Keywords: Epigenetic modification, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, DNA methylation, histone modification, MicroRNA alterations, therapeutic target.

Graphical Abstract
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