In the last few years, a massive increase in research has been observed that focuses on investigating the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria are vital cell organelles having important roles in different cellular processes, including energy production, calcium signaling, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, etc. Therefore, healthy mitochondria are necessary for cell survival and functioning. It would seem feasible that mitochondrial dysfunction will have implications in various pathological conditions. A large body of evidence indicates the role of the mitochondrion as a potential key player in the loss or dysfunction of neurons in various neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we provide an insight into mitochondrial dysfunction and its involvement in the pathology of several neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Hypoxic- Ischemic Brain Injury, and many more.