Generic placeholder image

Current Diabetes Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Review Article

Genetic and Non-genetic Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease in South Asians

Author(s): Shiwali Goyal and Dharambir K. Sanghera*

Volume 17, Issue 9, 2021

Published on: 18 January, 2021

Article ID: e011721190373 Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573399817666210118103022

Price: $65


South Asians (SAs), people from the Indian subcontinent (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal) have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and suffer from a greater risk of CVD-associated mortality compared to other global populations. These problems are compounded by the alterations in lifestyles due to urbanization and changing cultural, social, economic, and political environments. Current methods of CV risk prediction are based on white populations that under-estimate the CVD risk in SAs. Prospective studies are required to obtain actual CVD morbidity/mortality rates so that comparisons between predicted CVD risk can be made with actual events. Overwhelming data support a strong influence of genetic factors. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) serve as a starting point for future genetic and functional studies since the mechanisms of action by which these associated loci influence CVD is still unclear. It is difficult to predict the potential implication of these findings in clinical settings. This review provides a systematic assessment of the risk factors, genetics, and environmental causes of CV health disparity in SAs, and highlights progress made in clinical and genomics discoveries in the rapidly evolving field, which has the potential to show clinical relevance in the near future.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, risk factors, genetics, environment, south asians.

Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics-2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2012; 125(1): 188-97.
[] [PMID: 22215894]
Palaniappan LP, Araneta MR, Assimes TL, et al. American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; American Heart Association Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology; American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. Call to action: cardiovascular disease in asian americans: a science advisory from the american heart association. Circulation 2010; 122(12): 1242-52.
[] [PMID: 20733105]
Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380(9859): 2095-128.
[] [PMID: 23245604]
Knight TM, Smith Z, Whittles A, et al. Insulin resistance, diabetes, and risk markers for ischaemic heart disease in Asian men and non-Asian in Bradford. Br Heart J 1992; 67(5): 343-50.
[] [PMID: 1389712]
Sanghera DK, Saha N, Kamboh MI. The codon 55 polymorphism in the paraoxonase 1 gene is not associated with the risk of coronary heart disease in Asian Indians and Chinese. Atherosclerosis 1998; 136(2): 217-23.
[] [PMID: 9543091]
Enas EA, Garg A, Davidson MA, Nair VM, Huet BA, Yusuf S. Coronary heart disease and its risk factors in first-generation immigrant Asian Indians to the United States of America. Indian Heart J 1996; 48(4): 343-53.
[PMID: 8908818]
Heng DM, Lee J, Chew SK, Tan BY, Hughes K, Chia KS. Incidence of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore: Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000; 29(2): 231-6.
[PMID: 10895345]
Siegel KR, Patel SA, Ali MK. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives. Br Med Bull 2014; 111(1): 31-44.
[] [PMID: 25190759]
Murray CJ, Lopez AD, Black R, et al. Global burden of disease 2005: call for collaborators. Lancet 2007; 370(9582): 109-10.
[] [PMID: 17630021]
Joshi P, Islam S, Pais P, et al. Risk factors for early myocardial infarction in South Asians compared with individuals in other countries. JAMA 2007; 297(3): 286-94.
[] [PMID: 17227980]
Forouhi NG, Sattar N, Tillin T, McKeigue PM, Chaturvedi N. Do known risk factors explain the higher coronary heart disease mortality in South Asian compared with European men? Prospective follow-up of the Southall and Brent studies, UK. Diabetologia 2006; 49(11): 2580-8.
[] [PMID: 16972045]
McKeigue PM, Pierpoint T, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG. Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in south Asians and Europeans. Diabetologia 1992; 35(8): 785-91.
[PMID: 1511807]
Ramachandran ASC. Viswanathan V Burden of type2 diabetes and its complications: the Indian scenario. Curr Sci 2002; 83: 1471-6.
Hasan RK, Ginwala NT, Shah RY, Kumbhani DJ, Wilensky RL, Mehta NN. Quantitative angiography in South Asians reveals differences in vessel size and coronary artery disease severity compared to Caucasians. Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 1(1): 31-7.
[PMID: 22254183]
Dodani S. Excess coronary artery disease risk in South Asian immigrants: can dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein explain increased risk? Vasc Health Risk Manag 2008; 4(5): 953-61.
[] [PMID: 19183743]
Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364(9438): 937-52.
[] [PMID: 15364185]
Dodani S. Coronary artery diseases in South Asian immigrants: an update on high density lipoprotein role in disease prevention. Journal of immigrant and minority health / Center for Minority Public Health 2009; 11(5): 415-21.
Sanghera DK, Bhatti JS, Bhatti GK, et al. The Khatri Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS): study design, methodology, sample collection, and initial results. Hum Biol 2006; 78(1): 43-63.
[] [PMID: 16900881]
Third report of the national cholesterol education program (ncep) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel iii) final report. Circulation 2002; 106(25): 3143-421.
[] [PMID: 12485966]
Sanghera DK, Been LF, Ralhan S, et al. Genome-wide linkage scan to identify loci associated with type 2 diabetes and blood lipid phenotypes in the sikh diabetes study. PLoS One 2011; 6(6): e21188.
[] [PMID: 21698157]
Misra A, Wasir JS, Vikram NK, Sadikot SM. Short communication: metabolic syndrome in asian indians: current issues in definition and risk correlation. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2005; 3(2): 137-9.
[] [PMID: 18370721]
Hunt KJ, Resendez RG, Williams K, Haffner SM, Stern MP, San Antonio Heart S. San Antonio Heart Study. National Cholesterol Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation 2004; 110(10): 1251-7.
[] [PMID: 15326061]
Anand SS, Yi Q, Gerstein H, et al. Study of health assessment and risk in ethnic groups; Study of health assessment and risk evaluation in aboriginal peoples investigators. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and fibrinolytic dysfunction to cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2003; 108(4): 420-5.
[] [PMID: 12860914]
McKeigue PM, Miller GJ, Marmot MG. Coronary heart disease in south Asians overseas: a review. J Clin Epidemiol 1989; 42(7): 597-609.
[] [PMID: 2668448]
Saxena R, Saleheen D, Been LF, et al. DIAGRAM; MuTHER; AGEN. Genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus contributing to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in Sikhs of Punjabi origin from India. Diabetes 2013; 62(5): 1746-55.
[] [PMID: 23300278]
Sanghera DK, Dodani S. Cardiovascular disease in South Asians; Risk factors, genetics and environment.Medicine Update 2016-1. New Delhi, London, Philadelphia, Panama: The Health Sciences Publishers 2016; Vol. 2.
McKeigue PM, Shah B, Marmot MG. Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk in South Asians. Lancet 1991; 337(8738): 382-6.
[] [PMID: 1671422]
Geetha L, Deepa M, Anjana RM, Mohan V. Prevalence and clinical profile of metabolic obesity and phenotypic obesity in Asian Indians. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2011; 5(2): 439-46.
[] [PMID: 21527117]
Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285(19): 2486-97.
[] [PMID: 11368702]
Bonow RO. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a call to action. Circulation 2002; 106(25): 3140-1.
[] [PMID: 12485965]
Navab M, Reddy ST, Van Lenten BJ, Fogelman AM. HDL and cardiovascular disease: atherogenic and atheroprotective mechanisms. Nat Rev Cardiol 2011; 8(4): 222-32.
[] [PMID: 21304474]
Dodani S, Dong L. Acculturation, coronary artery disease and carotid intima media thickness in South Asian immigrants-unique population with increased risk. Ethn Dis 2011; 21(3): 314-21.
[PMID: 21942164]
Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, et al. Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness consensus (2004-2006). an update on behalf of the advisory board of the 3rd and 4th watching the risk symposium, 13th and 15th european stroke conferences, mannheim, germany, 2004, and brussels, belgium, 2006. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 23(1): 75-80.
[] [PMID: 17108679]
Crouse JR III, Craven TE, Hagaman AP, Bond MG. Association of coronary disease with segment-specific intimal-medial thickening of the extracranial carotid artery. Circulation 1995; 92(5): 1141-7.
[] [PMID: 7648658]
Howard G, Sharrett AR, Heiss G, et al. ARIC Investigators. Carotid artery intimal-medial thickness distribution in general populations as evaluated by B-mode ultrasound. Stroke 1993; 24(9): 1297-304.
[] [PMID: 8362421]
Dodani S, Dong L, Guirgis FW, Reddy ST. Carotid intima media thickness and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in South Asian immigrants: could dysfunctional HDL be the missing link? Arch Med Sci 2014; 10(5): 870-9.
[] [PMID: 25395937]
Blackett PS. Genetics of cardiovascular risk in obesity rs ahima (ed), metabolic syndrome. Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016; pp. 196-219.
Cushman M, Lemaitre RN, Kuller LH, et al. Fibrinolytic activation markers predict myocardial infarction in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19(3): 493-8.
[] [PMID: 10073948]
Prasad A, Zhu J, Halcox JP, Waclawiw MA, Epstein SE, Quyyumi AA. Predisposition to atherosclerosis by infections: role of endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2002; 106(2): 184-90.
[] [PMID: 12105156]
Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nature 1993; 362(6423): 801-9.
[] [PMID: 8479518]
Ahsan H, Ali A, Ali R. Oxygen free radicals and systemic autoimmunity. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 131(3): 398-404.
[] [PMID: 12605691]
Kugiyama K, Kerns SA, Morrisett JD, Roberts R, Henry PD. Impairment of endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation by lysolecithin in modified low-density lipoproteins. Nature 1990; 344(6262): 160-2.
[] [PMID: 2106627]
Tillin T, Dhutia H, Chambers J, et al. South Asian men have different patterns of coronary artery disease when compared with European men. Int J Cardiol 2008; 129(3): 406-13.
[] [PMID: 18022712]
Sing CF, Orr JD. Analysis of genetic and environmental sources of variation in serum cholesterol in Tecumseh, Michigan. IV. Separation of polygene from common environment effects. Am J Hum Genet 1978; 30(5): 491-504.
[PMID: 736039]
Robertson FW. The genetic component in coronary heart disease-a review. Genet Res 1981; 37(1): 1-16.
[] [PMID: 7009326]
Rissanen AM, Nikkilä EA. Coronary artery disease and its risk factors in families of young men with angina pectoris and in controls. Br Heart J 1977; 39(8): 875-83.
[] [PMID: 901682]
Visscher PM, Hill WG, Wray NR. Heritability in the genomics era-concepts and misconceptions. Nat Rev Genet 2008; 9(4): 255-66.
[] [PMID: 18319743]
Snieder H, van Doornen LJ, Boomsma DI. Dissecting the genetic architecture of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins: lessons from twin studies. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19(12): 2826-34.
[] [PMID: 10591657]
Brunham LR, Kruit JK, Hayden MR, Verchere CB. Cholesterol in beta-cell dysfunction: the emerging connection between HDL cholesterol and type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2010; 10(1): 55-60.
[] [PMID: 20425068]
Weissglas-Volkov D, Pajukanta P. Genetic causes of high and low serum HDL-cholesterol. J Lipid Res 2010; 51(8): 2032-57.
[] [PMID: 20421590]
Hegele RA. Plasma lipoproteins: genetic influences and clinical implications. Nat Rev Genet 2009; 10(2): 109-21.
[] [PMID: 19139765]
Brooks-Wilson A, Marcil M, Clee SM, et al. Mutations in ABC1 in Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency. Nat Genet 1999; 22(4): 336-45.
[] [PMID: 10431236]
Collins FS, Morgan M, Patrinos A. The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 2003; 300(5617): 286-90.
[] [PMID: 12690187]
Scott RA, Scott LJ, Mägi R, et al. Diabetes genetics replication and meta-analysis (diagram) consortium. An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans. Diabetes 2017; 66(11): 2888-902.
[] [PMID: 28566273]
Sanghera DK, Blackett PR. Type 2 diabetes genetics: beyond gwas. J Diabetes Metab 2012; 3(198): 6948.
[PMID: 23243555]
Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, et al. CHD Exome+ Consortium; EPIC-CVD Consortium; ExomeBP Consortium; Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; GoT2D Genes Consortium; EPIC InterAct Consortium; INTERVAL Study; ReproGen Consortium; T2D-Genes Consortium; MAGIC Investigators; Understanding Society Scientific Group. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity. Nat Genet 2018; 50(1): 26-41.
[] [PMID: 29273807]
Tabassum R, Chauhan G, Dwivedi OP, et al. DIAGRAM; INDICO. Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q21. Diabetes 2013; 62(3): 977-86.
[] [PMID: 23209189]
Kooner JS, Saleheen D, Sim X, et al. DIAGRAM; MuTHER. Genome-wide association study in individuals of South Asian ancestry identifies six new type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci. Nat Genet 2011; 43(10): 984-9.
[] [PMID: 21874001]
CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium, A Comprehensive 1000 Genomes-based GWAS meta-analysis of Coronary Artery Disease. Nat Genet 2015; 47: 1121-30.
Schork NJ, Murray SS, Frazer KA, Topol EJ. Common vs. rare allele hypotheses for complex diseases. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2009; 19(3): 212-9.
[] [PMID: 19481926]
Shuldiner AR, Pollin TI. Genomics: Variations in blood lipids. Nature 2010; 466(7307): 703-4.
[] [PMID: 20686562]
Coram MA, Duan Q, Hoffmann TJ, et al. Genome-wide characterization of shared and distinct genetic components that influence blood lipid levels in ethnically diverse human populations. Am J Hum Genet 2013; 92(6): 904-16.
[] [PMID: 23726366]
Stranger BE, Stahl EA, Raj T. Progress and promise of genome-wide association studies for human complex trait genetics. Genetics 2011; 187(2): 367-83.
[] [PMID: 21115973]
Braun TR, Been LF, Singhal A, et al. A replication study of GWAS-derived lipid genes in Asian Indians: the chromosomal region 11q23.3 harbors loci contributing to triglycerides. PLoS One 2012; 7(5): e37056.
[] [PMID: 22623978]
Marenberg ME, Risch N, Berkman LF, Floderus B, de Faire U. Genetic susceptibility to death from coronary heart disease in a study of twins. N Engl J Med 1994; 330(15): 1041-6.
[] [PMID: 8127331]
Sanders JL, Newman AB. Telomere length in epidemiology: a biomarker of aging, age-related disease, both, or neither? Epidemiol Rev 2013; 35: 112-31.
[] [PMID: 23302541]
Carroll JE, Diez-Roux AV, Adler NE, Seeman TE. Socioeconomic factors and leukocyte telomere length in a multi-ethnic sample: findings from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Brain Behav Immun 2013; 28: 108-14.
[] [PMID: 23142704]
Adaikalakoteswari A, Balasubramanyam M, Mohan V. Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2005; 22(9): 1151-6.
[] [PMID: 16108841]
Salpea KD, Nicaud V, Tiret L, Talmud PJ, Humphries SE. EARS II group. The association of telomere length with paternal history of premature myocardial infarction in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study II. J Mol Med (Berl) 2008; 86(7): 815-24.
[] [PMID: 18414821]
Samani NJ, Boultby R, Butler R, Thompson JR, Goodall AH. Telomere shortening in atherosclerosis. Lancet 2001; 358(9280): 472-3.
[] [PMID: 11513915]
Thomas P, O’ Callaghan NJ, Fenech M. Telomere length in white blood cells, buccal cells and brain tissue and its variation with ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Mech Ageing Dev 2008; 129(4): 183-90.
[] [PMID: 18242664]
Salpea KD, Talmud PJ, Cooper JA, et al. Association of telomere length with type 2 diabetes, oxidative stress and UCP2 gene variation. Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(1): 42-50.
[] [PMID: 19889414]
Ruzzene M, Penzo D, Pinna LA. Protein kinase CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB) induces apoptosis and caspase-dependent degradation of haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) in Jurkat cells. Biochem J 2002; 364(Pt 1): 41-7.
[] [PMID: 11988074]
Litchfield DW. Protein kinase CK2: structure, regulation and role in cellular decisions of life and death. Biochem J 2003; 369(Pt 1): 1-15.
[] [PMID: 12396231]
Saxena R, Bjonnes A, Prescott J, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in casein kinase II (CSNK2A2) to be associated with leukocyte telomere length in a Punjabi Sikh diabetic cohort. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2014; 7(3): 287-95.
[] [PMID: 24795349]
Harte AL, da Silva NF, Miller MA, et al. Telomere length attrition, a marker of biological senescence, is inversely correlated with triglycerides and cholesterol in South Asian males with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Diabetes Res 2012; 2012: 895185.
[] [PMID: 22474429]
Manolio TA, Collins FS, Cox NJ, et al. Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Nature 2009; 461(7265): 747-53.
[] [PMID: 19812666]
Cirulli ET, Goldstein DB. Uncovering the roles of rare variants in common disease through whole-genome sequencing. Nat Rev Genet 2010; 11(6): 415-25.
[] [PMID: 20479773]
Cooper RS, Tayo B, Zhu X. Genome-wide association studies: implications for multiethnic samples. Hum Mol Genet 2008; 17(R2): R151-5.
[] [PMID: 18852204]
Cohen JC, Boerwinkle E, Mosley TH Jr, Hobbs HH. Sequence variations in PCSK9, low LDL, and protection against coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(12): 1264-72.
[] [PMID: 16554528]
Wang K, Dickson SP, Stolle CA, Krantz ID, Goldstein DB, Hakonarson H. Interpretation of association signals and identification of causal variants from genome-wide association studies. Am J Hum Genet 2010; 86(5): 730-42.
[] [PMID: 20434130]
McCarthy MI, Abecasis GR, Cardon LR, et al. Genome-wide association studies for complex traits: consensus, uncertainty and challenges. Nat Rev Genet 2008; 9(5): 356-69.
[] [PMID: 18398418]
Thomas A, Camp NJ, Farnham JM, Allen-Brady K, Cannon-Albright LA. Shared genomic segment analysis. Mapping disease predisposition genes in extended pedigrees using SNP genotype assays. Ann Hum Genet 2008; 72(Pt 2): 279-87.
[] [PMID: 18093282]
MacLean CJ, Sham PC, Kendler KS. Joint linkage of multiple loci for a complex disorder. Am J Hum Genet 1993; 53(2): 353-66.
[PMID: 8328454]
Bhattacharjee S, Kuo CL, Mukhopadhyay N, Brock GN, Weeks DE, Feingold E. Robust score statistics for QTL linkage analysis. Am J Hum Genet 2008; 82(3): 567-82.
[] [PMID: 18304491]
Sapkota BR, Sanghera DK. A rare missense variant in the milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8) increases T2DM susceptibility and cardiovascular disease risk with population-specific effects. Acta Diabetol 2020; 57(6): 733-41.
[] [PMID: 32025861]
Dhandapany PS, Sadayappan S, Xue Y, et al. A common MYBPC3 (cardiac myosin binding protein C) variant associated with cardiomyopathies in South Asia. Nat Genet 2009; 41(2): 187-91.
[] [PMID: 19151713]
Neel JV. Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? Am J Hum Genet 1962; 14: 353-62.
[PMID: 13937884]
Joffe B, Zimmet P. The thrifty genotype in type 2 diabetes: an unfinished symphony moving to its finale? Endocrine 1998; 9(2): 139-41.
[] [PMID: 9867247]
Simmons D. Ethnic comparisons in diabetes and insulin levels. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1995; 4(4): 346-8.
[PMID: 24394422]
Simmons D, Williams DR, Powell MJ. Prevalence of diabetes in a predominantly Asian community: preliminary findings of the Coventry diabetes study. BMJ 1989; 298(6665): 18-21.
[] [PMID: 2492840]
Barker DJ, Hales CN, Fall CH, Osmond C, Phipps K, Clark PM. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 1993; 36(1): 62-7.
[] [PMID: 8436255]
Yajnik CS, Fall CH, Vaidya U, et al. Fetal growth and glucose and insulin metabolism in four-year-old Indian children. Diabet Med 1995; 12(4): 330-6.
[] [PMID: 7600749]
Ahlgren U, Jonsson J, Jonsson L, Simu K, Edlund H. beta-cell-specific inactivation of the mouse Ipf1/Pdx1 gene results in loss of the beta-cell phenotype and maturity onset diabetes. Genes Dev 1998; 12(12): 1763-8.
[] [PMID: 9637677]
Ferdinand KC. Coronary artery disease in minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97(2A): 12A-9A.
[] [PMID: 16442932]
Jirtle RL, Skinner MK. Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. Nat Rev Genet 2007; 8(4): 253-62.
[] [PMID: 17363974]
Slomko H, Heo HJ, Einstein FH. Minireview: Epigenetics of obesity and diabetes in humans. Endocrinology 2012; 153(3): 1025-30.
[] [PMID: 22253427]
Attig L, Gabory A, Junien C. Early nutrition and epigenetic programming: chasing shadows. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13(3): 284-93.
[] [PMID: 20375884]
Cornelis MC, Hu FB. Gene-environment interactions in the development of type 2 diabetes: recent progress and continuing challenges. Annu Rev Nutr 2012; 32: 245-59.
[] [PMID: 22540253]
Cornelis MC, Tchetgen EJ, Liang L, et al. Gene-environment interactions in genome-wide association studies: a comparative study of tests applied to empirical studies of type 2 diabetes. Am J Epidemiol 2012; 175(3): 191-202.
[] [PMID: 22199026]
Blackett PR, Sanghera DK. Genetic determinants of cardiometabolic risk: a proposed model for phenotype association and interaction. J Clin Lipidol 2013; 7(1): 65-81.
[] [PMID: 23351585]
Rush EC, Chandu V, Plank LD. Reduction of abdominal fat and chronic disease factors by lifestyle change in migrant Asian Indians older than 50 years. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007; 16(4): 671-6.
[PMID: 18042527]
Mooteri SN, Petersen F, Dagubati R, Pai RG. Duration of residence in the United States as a new risk factor for coronary artery disease (The Konkani Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 2004; 93(3): 359-61.
[] [PMID: 14759392]
Anderson A S, Bush H, Lean M, Bradby H, Williams R, Lea E. Evolution of atherogenic diets in South Asian and Italian women after migration to a higher risk region. J human nutri diet j British Diet Asso 2005; 18(1): 33-43.
Rahman MA, Spurrier N, Mahmood MA, Rahman M, Choudhury SR, Leeder S. Is there any association between use of smokeless tobacco products and coronary heart disease in Bangladesh? PLoS One 2012; 7(1): e30584.
[] [PMID: 22276217]
Hanifi S M, Mahmood S S, Bhuiya A. Smoking has declined but not for all: findings from a study in a rural area of Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific journal of public health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health 2011; 23(5): 662-71.
Godtfredsen NS, Holst C, Prescott E, Vestbo J, Osler M. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality: a 16-year follow-up of 19,732 men and women from The Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156(11): 994-1001.
[] [PMID: 12446255]
Roy A, Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, et al. Sentinel Surveillance in Industrial Populations Study Group. Impact of alcohol on coronary heart disease in Indian men. Atherosclerosis 2010; 210(2): 531-5.
[] [PMID: 20226461]
Daniels SI, Chambers JC, Sanchez SS, et al. Elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in south asian immigrants are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. J Endocr Soc 2018; 2(8): 832-41.
[] [PMID: 30019022]
La Merrill MA, Johnson CL, Smith MT, et al. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (pops) and their relationship to hepatic fat and insulin insensitivity among asian indian immigrants in the united states. Environ Sci Technol 2019; 53(23): 13906-18.
[] [PMID: 31746186]
Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998; 97(18): 1837-47.
[] [PMID: 9603539]
D’Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P, Group CHDRP. CHD Risk Prediction Group. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001; 286(2): 180-7.
[] [PMID: 11448281]
Aarabi M, Jackson PR. Predicting coronary risk in UK South Asians: an adjustment method for Framingham-based tools. Euro. j. cardiovas. prevent. rehab.: official j. Euro. Soc. Cardi. Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology 2005; 12(1): 46-51.
Barzi F, Patel A, Gu D, et al. Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Cardiovascular risk prediction tools for populations in Asia. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007; 61(2): 115-21.
[] [PMID: 17234869]
Anand SS, Yusuf S, Vuksan V, et al. Differences in risk factors, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease between ethnic groups in Canada: the Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups (SHARE). Lancet 2000; 356(9226): 279-84.
[] [PMID: 11071182]
Cappuccio FP, Oakeshott P, Strazzullo P, Kerry SM. Application of Framingham risk estimates to ethnic minorities in United Kingdom and implications for primary prevention of heart disease in general practice: cross sectional population based study. BMJ 2002; 325(7375): 1271.
[] [PMID: 12458243]
Bhopal R, Fischbacher C, Vartiainen E, Unwin N, White M, Alberti G. Predicted and observed cardiovascular disease in South Asians: application of FINRISK, Framingham and SCORE models to Newcastle Heart Project data. J Public Health (Oxf) 2005; 27(1): 93-100.
[] [PMID: 15749725]
McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, et al. INTERHEART study investigators. Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. Lancet 2008; 372(9634): 224-33.
[] [PMID: 18640459]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy