Generic placeholder image

Current Women`s Health Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4048
ISSN (Online): 1875-6581

Review Article

Challenges in Breast Cancer Control in Malaysia

Author(s): Noor Fatmawati Mokhtar*, Hemaniswarri Dewi Dewadas, Juhara Haron, Maya Mazwin Yahya, Bachok Norsa’adah, Wan Zainira Wan Zain, Sarina Sulong, Jafri Malin Abdullah and Reena Rahayu Md Zin

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 22 March, 2021

Article ID: e201021192409 Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573404817666210322153238

Price: $65

Abstract

High proportion of late presentation and poor survival of women with breast cancer in Malaysia does not reflect the country’s status as the third richest country in South East Asia. Herein, we examined, and collated research articles related to breast cancer trajectory i.e., primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in Malaysia to understand, appreciate and recognize the achievements but also gaps which undermine Malaysia’s response in handling the disease. In summary, the integral task for Malaysia is to strategically align research to improve local data (research) on the extent of the country’s breast cancer problem, so that effective, comprehensive, and evidence- based cancer control programs founded on resource level can be generated.

Keywords: Breast cancer, awareness, breast surgeries, genetic testing, Malaysia, mammograms, primary prevention, secondaryprevention, tertiary prevention.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
The Global Cancer Observatory G. Source. Source: Globocan 2018. World Heal Organ 2019.
[2]
Torre LA, Islami F, Siegel RL, Ward EM, Jemal A. Global cancer in women: Burden and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2017; 26(4): 444-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0858] [PMID: 28223433]
[3]
Narod SA, Iqbal J, Giannakeas V, Sopik V, Sun P. Breast cancer mortality after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ. JAMA Oncol 2015; 1(7): 888-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.2510] [PMID: 26291673]
[4]
Marshall SA, Yang CC, Ping Q, Zhao M, Avis NE, Ip EH. Symptom clusters in women with breast cancer: An analysis of data from social media and a research study. Qual Life Res 2016; 25(3): 547-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-1156-7] [PMID: 26476836]
[5]
Nakamura K, Okada E, Ukawa S, et al. Characteristics and prognosis of Japanese female breast cancer patients: The BioBank Japan project. J Epidemiol 2017; 27(3S): S58-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.je.2016.12.009] [PMID: 28223083]
[6]
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia 2019.https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/cancer/cancer-in-australia-2019/data
[7]
National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Statistics Review (CSR) 1975-2017. J Natl Cancer Inst 2019.https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/
[8]
Office for National Statistics. Cancer survival in England: adult, stage at diagnosis and childhood - patients followed up to 2018. Off Natl Stat 2018.https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancersurvivalinengland/stageatdiagnosisandchildhoodpatientsfollowedupto2018
[9]
Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Dunn NAM, Muller JM, Pyke CM, Baade PD. The descriptive epidemiology of female breast cancer: an international comparison of screening, incidence, survival and mortality. Cancer Epidemiol 2012; 36(3): 237-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2012.02.007] [PMID: 22459198]
[10]
Rivera-Franco MM, Leon-Rodriguez E. Delays in breast cancer detection and treatment in developing countries. Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2018; 12: 1178223417752677.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178223417752677] [PMID: 29434475]
[11]
Abdullah NA, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Muhammad NA, et al. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: A population-based study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(8): 4591-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4591] [PMID: 24083707]
[12]
Ministry of Health Malaysia. Malaysian study on cancer survival (MySCan). 2018.https://nci.moh.gov.my/index.php/ms/list-penerbitan/35-laporan/522-myscan
[13]
Dahlui M, Ng C, Al-Sadat N, Ismail S, Bulgiba A. Is breast self examination (BSE) still relevant? A study on BSE performance among female staff of University of Malaya. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011; 12(2): 369-72.
[PMID: 21545196]
[14]
Mansor M, Harun NZ. Health Issues and Green Space as Reinforcement for a Healthy Lifestyle in Malaysia. J Asian Behav Stud 2018; 3(9): 69-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21834/jabs.v5i18.87]
[15]
Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Taib NA, et al. Spectrum of very early breast cancer in a setting without organised screening. Br J Cancer 2014; 110(9): 2187-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2014.183] [PMID: 24736587]
[16]
Lee MS, ‘Azmiyaty Amar Ma’ Ruf C, Nadhirah Izhar DP, et al. Awareness on breast cancer screening in Malaysia: A cross sectional study. Biomedicine (Taipei) 2019; 9(3): 18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/bmdcn/2019090318] [PMID: 31453799]
[17]
Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM. Awareness and prevalence of mammography screening and its predictors-a cross sectional study in a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014; 15(19): 8095-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.19.8095] [PMID: 25338990]
[18]
Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF. Awareness of breast cancer and screening procedures among Malaysian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011; 12(8): 1965-7.
[PMID: 22292634]
[19]
Aidalina M, Syed Mohamed ASJ. The uptake of Mammogram screening in Malaysia and its associated factors: A systematic review. Med J Malaysia 2018; 73(4): 202-11.
[PMID: 30121682]
[20]
Ministry of Health Malaysia. National Health Morbidity Survey 2020.http://www.iku.gov.my/nhms-2019
[21]
Hadi MA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A. Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among female university students in Malaysia. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2010; 8(1): 29-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S1886-36552010000100003] [PMID: 25152790]
[22]
Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Ismail IZ, Said SM, Latiff LA. Barriers to breast self examination practice among Malaysian female students: a cross sectional study. Springerplus 2015; 4: 692.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1491-8] [PMID: 26587360]
[23]
Abu Samah A, Ahmadian M, Latiff LA. Insufficient knowledge of breast cancer risk factors among Malaysian female university students. Glob J Health Sci 2015; 8(1): 277-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p277] [PMID: 26234996]
[24]
Sheikh Alaudeen SRB, Ganesan K. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Malaysian medical students towards breast cancer: A cross- sectional study. Intern Med Care 2019; 3: 1-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15761/IMC.1000125]
[25]
Chan YY, Sooryanarayana R, Mohamad Kasim N, et al. Prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019; 81: 74-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2018.11.012] [PMID: 30521992]
[26]
Chan YY, Lim KK, Lim KH, et al. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS). BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 733.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4772-z] [PMID: 28934939]
[27]
Yen SH, Knight A, Krishna M, Muda W, Rufai A. Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer: A case-control study in Kelantan, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(8): 4083-8.
[PMID: 27644665]
[28]
Ying C, Kuay LK, Huey TC, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2014; 45(2): 467-80.
[PMID: 24968689]
[29]
Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV. Practice and barriers of mammography among Malaysian women in the general population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(8): 3595-600.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.8.3595] [PMID: 23098439]
[30]
Al-Dubai SAR, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, Abdul Manaf MR, Ijaz S, Kassim S. Exploration of barriers to breast-self examination among urban women in Shah Alam, Malaysia: A cross sectional study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(4): 1627-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1627] [PMID: 22799379]
[31]
Shaw T, Ishak D, Lie D, et al. The influence of Malay cultural beliefs on breast cancer screening and genetic testing: A focus group study. Psychooncology 2018; 27(12): 2855-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4902] [PMID: 30264524]
[32]
Schliemann D, Donnelly M, Dahlui M, et al. The ‘Be Cancer Alert Campaign’: Protocol to evaluate a mass media campaign to raise awareness about breast and colorectal cancer in Malaysia. BMC Cancer 2018; 18(1): 881.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4769-8] [PMID: 30200904]
[33]
Schliemann D, Su TT, Paramasivam D, et al. The systematic cultural adaptation of a UK public health cancer awareness raising programme for Malaysia: The Be Cancer Alert Campaign. Transl Behav Med 2019; 9(6): 1087-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz134] [PMID: 31583402]
[34]
Schliemann D, Paramasivam D, Dahlui M, et al. Change in public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms following the Be Cancer Alert Campaign in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. BMC Cancer 2020; 20(1): 252.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06742-3] [PMID: 32213173]
[35]
Schliemann D, Htay MNN, Dahlui M, et al. Impact of a mass media campaign on breast cancer symptoms awareness and screening uptake in Malaysia: Findings from a quasi-experimental study. BMJ Open 2020; 10(8): e036503.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036503] [PMID: 32819988]
[36]
Norsa’adah B, Rusli BN, Imran AK, Naing I, Winn T. Risk factors of breast cancer in women in Kelantan, Malaysia. Singapore Med J 2005; 46(12): 698-705.
[PMID: 16308643]
[37]
Wen WX, Allen J, Lai KN, et al. Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an unselected multiethnic cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls from Malaysia. J Med Genet 2018; 55(2): 97-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104947] [PMID: 28993434]
[38]
Momenimovahed Z, Salehiniya H. Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 2019; 11: 151-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BCTT.S176070] [PMID: 31040712]
[39]
Tan MM, Ho WK, Yoon SY, et al. A case-control study of breast cancer risk factors in 7,663 women in Malaysia. PLoS One 2018; 13(9): e0203469.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203469] [PMID: 30216346]
[40]
Heller SL, Young Lin LL, Melsaether AN, Moy L, Gao Y. Hormonal effects on breast density, fibroglandular tissue, and background parenchymal enhancement. Radiographics 2018; 38(4): 983-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2018180035] [PMID: 29856684]
[41]
Zulfiqar M, Rohazly I, Rahmah M. Do the majority of Malaysian women have dense breasts on mammogram? Biomed Imaging Interv J 2011; 7(2): e14.
[PMID: 22291859]
[42]
Lo CH, Chai XY, Ting SSW, et al. Density of breast: An independent risk factor for developing breast cancer, a prospective study at two premium breast centers. Cancer Med 2020; 9(9): 3244-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2821] [PMID: 32130790]
[43]
Lee M, Mariapun S, Rajaram N, Teo SH, Yip CH. Performance of a subsidised mammographic screening programme in Malaysia, a middle-income Asian country. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 127.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4015-3] [PMID: 28129762]
[44]
Ministry of Health Malaysia. Malaysia Clinical Practice Guidelines on Management of Breast Cancer 3rd ed. 2019.https://www.moh.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/948
[45]
Teo SH, Sook-Yee Y, Keong TM, et al. Genetic predisposition to breast cancer in Malaysian breast cancer patients: Update from the Malaysian Breast Cancer Genetic Study (MyBrCa). J Univ Malaya Med Cent 2013.
[46]
Thirthagiri E, Lee SY, Kang P, et al. Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and risk-prediction models in a typical Asian country (Malaysia) with a relatively low incidence of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2008; 10(4): R59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr2118] [PMID: 18627636]
[47]
Toh GT, Kang P, Lee SSW, et al. BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in Malaysian women with early-onset breast cancer without a family history. PLoS One 2008; 3(4): e2024.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002024] [PMID: 18431501]
[48]
Yang XR, Devi BCR, Sung H, et al. Prevalence and spectrum of germline rare variants in BRCA1/2 and PALB2 among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017; 165(3): 687-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4356-8] [PMID: 28664506]
[49]
Mohamad S, Isa NM, Muhammad R, et al. Low prevalence of CHEK2 gene mutations in multiethnic cohorts of breast cancer patients in Malaysia. PLoS One 2015; 10(1): e0117104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117104] [PMID: 25629968]
[50]
Sharifah NA, Nurismah MI, Lee HC, et al. Identification of novel large genomic rearrangements at the BRCA1 locus in Malaysian women with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol 2010; 34(4): 442-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2010.04.010] [PMID: 20451485]
[51]
Kemp Z, Turnbull A, Yost S, et al. Evaluation of cancer-based criteria for use in mainstream BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing in patients with breast cancer. JAMA Netw Open 2019; 2(5): e194428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4428] [PMID: 31125106]
[52]
Lee JMH, Thong MK. Genetic counseling services and development of training programs in Malaysia. J Genet Couns 2013; 22(6): 911-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10897-013-9589-z] [PMID: 23615969]
[53]
Wong KHY, Ma W, Wei C-Y, et al. Towards a reference genome that captures global genetic diversity. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 5482.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19311-w] [PMID: 33127893]
[54]
Halim-Fikri H, Etemad A, Abdul Latif AZ, et al. The first Malay database toward the ethnic-specific target molecular variation. BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 176.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1123-y] [PMID: 25925844]
[55]
Hassan NN, Plazzer JP, Smith TD, et al. Harmonizing the interpretation of genetic variants across the world: the Malaysian experience. BMC Res Notes 2016; 9: 125.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1798-0] [PMID: 26915360]
[56]
Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Singer CF, et al. Association of risk-reducing surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with cancer risk and mortality. JAMA 2010; 304(9): 967-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1237] [PMID: 20810374]
[57]
Ludwig KK, Neuner J, Butler A, Geurts JL, Kong AL. Risk reduction and survival benefit of prophylactic surgery in BRCA mutation carriers, a systematic review. Am J Surg 2016; 212(4): 660-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2016.06.010] [PMID: 27649974]
[58]
Al-Naggar RA, Osman MT. Mohd Noor NAini, Alqubaisy WA. Perceptions of Female Medical Students towards Preventative Mastectomy in Malaysia: A Qualitative Approach. Indian J Appl Res 2013; 3(7): 527-9.
[59]
Taib NA, Woo YL, Yoon SY, et al. Early experience in a breast and ovarian cancer risk management clinic in Malaysia. Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2012; 10(Suppl. 2): A58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1897-4287-10-S2-A58]
[60]
Cuzick J, Sestak I, Bonanni B, et al. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: An updated meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 2013; 381(9880): 1827-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60140-3] [PMID: 23639488]
[61]
Cuzick J, Sestak I, Cawthorn S, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: Extended long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I breast cancer prevention trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16(1): 67-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71171-4] [PMID: 25497694]
[62]
Vogel VG. Role of hormones in cancer prevention. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ B 2014; 34-40.
[63]
Engmann NJ, Scott CG, Jensen MR, et al. Longitudinal changes in volumetric breast density with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2017; 26(6): 930-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0882] [PMID: 28148596]
[64]
Shahril MR, Sulaiman S, Wafa SW, Akmal SN, Vitamin A. C, E and risk of breast cancer according to menopausal status in Malaysia. Malays J Public Health Med 2016; 103(2): 454-64.
[65]
Mahmud A, Aljunid SM. Availability and accessibility of subsidized mammogram screening program in peninsular Malaysia: A preliminary study using travel impedance approach. PLoS One 2018; 13(2): e0191764.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191764] [PMID: 29389972]
[66]
Yip CH, Pathy NB, Teo SH. A review of breast cancer research in Malaysia. Med J Mala 2014; 69(Suppl A): 8-22.
[67]
Hadi Q, Masroor I, Hussain Z. Mammographic Criteria for Determining the Diagnostic Accuracy of Microcalcifications in the Detection of Malignant Breast Lesions. Cureus 2019; 11(10): e5919.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5919] [PMID: 31788377]
[68]
Kolb TM, Lichy J, Newhouse JH. Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: An analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. Radiology 2002; 225(1): 165-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2251011667] [PMID: 12355001]
[69]
del Carmen MG, Halpern EF, Kopans DB, et al. Mammographic breast density and race. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007; 188(4): 1147-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.06.0619] [PMID: 17377060]
[70]
Heller SL, Hudson S, Wilkinson LS. Breast density across a regional screening population: effects of age, ethnicity and deprivation. Br J Radiol 2015; 88(1055): 20150242.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20150242] [PMID: 26329467]
[71]
Thigpen D, Kappler A, Brem R. The role of ultrasound in screening dense breasts - A review of the literature and practical solutions for implementation. Diagnostics (Basel) 2018; 8(1): 20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8010020] [PMID: 29547532]
[72]
Tan KP, Mohamad Azlan Z, Rumaisa MP, et al. The comparative accuracy of ultrasound and mammography in the detection of breast cancer. Med J Malaysia 2014; 69(2): 79-85.
[PMID: 25241817]
[73]
Jones JL, Oien KA, Lee JL, Salto-Tellez M. Morphomolecular pathology: Setting the framework for a new generation of pathologists. Br J Cancer 2017; 117(11): 1581-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.340] [PMID: 29123262]
[74]
Ministry of Health Malaysia. National Strategic Plan for Cancer Control Programme 2016-2020. file:///C:/Users/H%20P/Downloads/National_Strategic_Plan_Book_final@25SEPT2017%20(2).pdf2017.
[75]
Fisher B, Jeong JH, Anderson S, Bryant J, Fisher ER, Wolmark N. Twenty-five-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, and total mastectomy followed by irradiation. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(8): 567-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa020128] [PMID: 12192016]
[76]
Chong HY, Taib NA, Rampal S, Saad M, Bustam AZ, Yip CH. Treatment options for locally advanced breast cancer-experience in an Asian tertiary hospital. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2010; 11(4): 913-7.
[PMID: 21133600]
[77]
Wong WJ, Mosiun JA, Hidayati Z, et al. Low Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS) rates in public hospitals in Malaysia: The effect of stage and ethnicity. Breast 2019; 46: 136-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2019.05.016] [PMID: 31176055]
[78]
Tan MPC, Sitoh YY. Are breast conservation treatment rates optimized for Asian women with symptomatic malignancies? ANZ J Surg 2019; 89(5): 529-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15084] [PMID: 30972960]
[79]
Sinnadurai S, Kwong A, Hartman M, et al. Breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy in young women with breast cancer in Asian settings. BJS open 2019; 3(1): 48-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs5.50111]
[80]
Azrif M, Ibrahim J, Aslan NM, Fong KV, Ismail F. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer in a malaysian tertiary hospital. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011; 12(1): 157-62.
[PMID: 21517250]
[81]
Cherny NI, Sullivan R, Torode J, Saar M, Eniu A. ESMO International Consortium Study on the availability, out-of-pocket costs and accessibility of antineoplastic medicines in countries outside of Europe. Ann Oncol 2017; 28(11): 2633-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx521] [PMID: 28950323]
[82]
Lee WC, Haron MR, Yu KL, Chong FLT, Goh A, Azmi S. Economic Analysis of Intravenous vs. Subcutaneously Administered Trastuzumab for the Treatment of HER2+ Early Breast Cancer in Malaysia. Adv Breast Cancer Res 2016; 5: 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/abcr.2016.51001]
[83]
Kong YC, Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, et al. Advanced stage at presentation remains a major factor contributing to breast cancer survival disparity between public and private hospitals in a middle-income country. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14(4): 427.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040427] [PMID: 28420149]
[84]
Lim LY, Miao H, Lim JSJ, et al. Outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Asian breast cancer patients. Cancer Med 2017; 6(1): 173-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.985] [PMID: 28000426]
[85]
Phua CE, Bustam AZ, Yusof MM, et al. Risk of treatment related death and febrile neutropaenia with taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in a middle income country outside a clinical trial setting. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(9): 4623-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4623] [PMID: 23167391]
[86]
Phua VC, Wong WQ, Tan PL, et al. Capecitabine pattern of usage, rate of febrile neutropaenia and treatment related death in asian cancer patients in clinical practice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16(4): 1449-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.4.1449] [PMID: 25743814]
[87]
Phua CE, Tang WH, Yusof MM, et al. Risk of treatment related death and febrile neutropaenia with first line palliative chemotherapy for de novo metastatic breast cancer in clinical practice in a middle resource country. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014; 15(23): 10263-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.23.10263] [PMID: 25556458]
[88]
Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Shatar AKA, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicines among Malaysian cancer patients: A descriptive study. J Tradit Complement Med 2015; 6(4): 321-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.12.008] [PMID: 27774413]
[89]
Mohd Mujar NM, Dahlui M, Emran NA, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and delays in presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer patients in public hospitals in Malaysia. PLoS One 2017; 12(4): e0176394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176394] [PMID: 28448541]
[90]
Razali NH, Ali A, Hua Gan S, Sen Lim C. Prevalence of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicine’s Use among Cancer Patients in South Peninsular Malaysia. Asian Pacific J Cancer Biol 2020; 5(1): 19-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/apjcb.2020.5.1.19-26]
[91]
Nies YH, Ali AM, Abdullah N, Islahudin F, Shah NM. A qualitative study among breast cancer patients on chemotherapy: experiences and side-effects. Patient Prefer Adherence 2018; 12: 1955-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S168638] [PMID: 30319245]
[92]
Mathew A. Global survey of clinical oncology workforce. J Glob Oncol 2018; 4: 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.17.00188] [PMID: 30241241]
[93]
Norsa’adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM. Diagnosis delay of breast cancer and its associated factors in Malaysian women. BMC Cancer 2011; 11: 141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-141] [PMID: 21496310]
[94]
Bhoo-Pathy N, Hartman M, Yip CH, et al. Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia. PLoS One 2012; 7(2): e30995.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030995] [PMID: 22363531]
[95]
O’Hara J, McPhee C, Dodson S, et al. Barriers to Breast Cancer Screening among Diverse Cultural Groups in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018; 15(8): 1677.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081677] [PMID: 30087259]
[96]
Sentell TL, Tsoh JY, Davis T, Davis J, Braun KL. Low health literacy and cancer screening among Chinese Americans in California: A cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open 2015; 5(1): e006104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006104] [PMID: 25564140]
[97]
Ahmad AR, Tan JSJ, Manivannan AB, Wahid MIA. Breast cancer survivorship in an Asian specialist centre from Malaysia: A retrospective analysis. Asian J Med Sci 2019; 10(6): 22-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v10i6.25885]
[98]
Ho GF, Taib NA, Pritam Singh RK, et al. What if all patients with breast cancer in malaysia have access to the best available care: How many deaths are avoidable? Glob J Health Sci 2017; 50(4): e2-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v9n8p32]
[99]
Edib Z, Kumarasamy V, Binti Abdullah N, Rizal AM, Al-Dubai SAR. Most prevalent unmet supportive care needs and quality of life of breast cancer patients in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2016; 14: 26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0428-4] [PMID: 26898558]
[100]
Lim R. Improving cancer pain management in Malaysia. Oncology 2008; 74(Suppl. 1): 24-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000143215] [PMID: 18758194]
[101]
Lau C, Pickersgill M. Integrating, advocating and augmenting palliative care in Malaysia: A qualitative examination of the barriers faced and negotiated by Malaysian palliative care non-govermental organisations. J Glob Health Rep 2019; 3: e2019003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.29392/joghr.3.e2019003] [PMID: 31363500]
[102]
Lim R. Palliative Care in South-East Asia. J Thorac Oncol 2017; 12(1): S24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2016.11.024]
[103]
Mejin M, Keowmani T, Rahman SA, et al. Prevalence of pain and treatment outcomes among cancer patients in a Malaysian palliative care unit. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2019; 17(1): 1397.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2019.1.1397] [PMID: 31015879]
[104]
Ministry of Health Malaysia. National Palliative Care Policy and Strategic Plan 2019-2030. 2019.https://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Polisi/BUKU_NATIONAL_PALLIATIVE_CARE_POLICY_AND_STRATEGY_PLAN_2019-2030.pdf
[105]
Ramaswami R, Paulino E, Barrichello A, et al. Disparities in breast, lung, and cervical cancer trials worldwide. J Glob Oncol 2018; 4: 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.17.00226] [PMID: 30241268]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy