Generic placeholder image

Current Women`s Health Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4048
ISSN (Online): 1875-6581

Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior in Avoiding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home among Pregnant Women

Author(s): Roghieh Bayrami, Samira Ebrahimi *, Javad Rasouli and Haydeh Feizipour

Volume 18, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 16 December, 2021

Article ID: e031121194897 Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573404817666210719124534

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: There is a paucity of research on knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the harms of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among pregnant women. Objective: This study, therefore, aimed to examine the knowledge, attitude, and avoidance behavior towards ETS exposure at home among Iranian pregnant women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Urmia, Iran, in 2019. The participants were selected through a multi-stage process. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire that measured demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and behaviors in avoiding ETS. The data were analyzed using Pearson- ’s correlation coefficient, t-test, and ANOVA by SPSS-16 at a significance level of 0.05.

Results: The majority of participants (54.7%) had sufficient knowledge about ETS. The women's attitude and efforts to prevent ETS exposure were moderate in 50% and 60% of the cases, respectively. The participants’ knowledge had a significant association with their level of education, employment status, and family income (P<0.05). Knowledge had a significant and positive relationship with attitude (P=0.001, r=0.280) and efforts to prevent ETS exposure (P<0.001, r=0.403).

Conclusion: Knowledge about ETS was significantly correlated with attitude and avoidance behavior of ETS exposure. Therefore, pregnancy care providers to improve the attitude and practice of pregnant women should implement interventional programs. Public health initiatives are also needed to empower women and encourage them to reduce ETS exposure.

Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, behavior, pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke pollution, secondhand smoke.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Cinar ND, Dede C. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children. Pak J Med Sci 2010; 26: 223-8.
[2]
Protano C, Vitali M. The new danger of thirdhand smoke: why passive smoking does not stop at secondhand smoke. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119(10): A422.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103956] [PMID: 21968336]
[3]
World Health Organization. WHO World report on the global tobacco epidemic. 2011.
[4]
Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Destaillats H, et al. Third hand tobacco smoke: Emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 1218-26.
[5]
Chen R, Clifford A, Lang L, Anstey KJ. Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with cognitive parameters of children and adolescents? A systematic literature review. Ann Epidemiol 23(10): 652-61.2013;
[6]
A Report of the Surgeon General The health consequences of involuntary exposure to obacco smoke. Atlanta, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, CDC, Office on Smoking and Health. 2006.
[7]
Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, Peruga A, Prüss-Ustün A. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 2011; 377(9760): 139-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61388-8] [PMID: 21112082]
[8]
Sarraf-Zadegan N, Boshtam M, Shahrokhi S, et al. Tobacco use among Iranian men, women and adolescents. Eur J Public Health 2004; 14(1): 76-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/14.1.76] [PMID: 15080396]
[9]
Bahiraii A, Faghihi RS, Mirmohammad AM, Kazem NA. Predictors of home smoking ban in households in pregnant women. Payesh 2012; 11(4): 511-7.
[10]
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad SS, Karimiankakolaki Z, Kazemi2 A, Keshavarz Mohammadi N, Fallahzadeh H. Exposure to secondhand smoke in Iranian pregnant women at home and the related factors. Tobacco Prevention & Cessation 2019.
[11]
He QQ, Wong TW, Du L, Jiang ZQ, Yu TS, Qiu H, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and chinese schoolchildren's respiratory health: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011; 41(5): 487.493
[12]
Leonardi-Bee J, Britton J, Venn A. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011; 127(4): 734-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3041] [PMID: 21382949]
[13]
Chi Y-C, Sha F, Yip PSF, Chen J-L, Chen Y-Y. Randomized comparison of group versus individual educational interventions for pregnant women to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(40): e5072.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005072] [PMID: 27749578]
[14]
Alghamdi AS, Jokhadar HF, Alghamdi IM, Alsohibani SA, Alqahtani OJ, Abdelmageed WH. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke among pregnant Women. Int J Women’s Health Reprod Sci 2016; 4(2): 59-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15296/ijwhr.2016.14]
[15]
Amasha HA, Jaradeh MS. Effect of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on its outcomes. Health Sci J 2012; 6(2)
[16]
Centers for disease control and prevention.Smoking and tobacco use: fact sheet, second hand smoke Available fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/secondhand_smoke/
[17]
Wang Z, May SM, Charoenlap S, et al. Effects of secondhand smoke exposure on asthma morbidity and health care utilization in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015; 115(5): 396-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2015.08.005]
[18]
Kim JH, Choi JY, Kim NY, et al. Clinical risk factors associated with the development of wheezing in children less than 2 years of age who required hospitalization for viral lower respiratory tract infections. Korean J Pediatr 2015; 58(7): 245-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2015.58.7.245]
[19]
Moradi M, Fazeli N, Khadivzadeh T, Esmaily H. Application of health belief model to assess knowledge and attitude of women regarding preconception care. J Midwifery Rep Health 2020; 8(2): 2146-54.
[20]
Kumar S, Preetha G. Health promotion: An effective tool for global health. Indian J Community Med 2012; 37(1): 5-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.94009] [PMID: 22529532]
[21]
Okoli CT, Rayens MK, Wiggins AT, Ickes MJ, Butler KM, Hahn EJ. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral symptoms among college students. J Am Coll Health 2016; 64(2): 96-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2015.1074240] [PMID: 26503903]
[22]
Nor Afiah MZ, Suriani I, Rohaiza Aida HF, Muhamad Syahir Asyraf AR. Knowledge, attitude and perceptions on second hand smoke (SHS) exposure among undergraduate students contribute to avoidance of second hand smoke. International journal of public health and clinical sciences (IJPHCS) 2017; 4: 1.http://publichealthmy.org/ejournal/ojs2/index.php/ijphcs/article/download/391/318/
[23]
Rahmani M, Mahmudul HasanII SM, HaqueIII SE. et al. Secondhand smoking, knowledge/attitudes and socioeconomic status among married Bangladeshi women: A cross-sectional study. Sao Paulo Med J 2019; 137(1): 13-24.
[24]
Sahabi B, Hasani M, Faraji Dizaji S, Abdoli G. The effect of socio-economic situation on smoking in urban households of Iran. Hakim Health Sys Res 2019; 22(2): 112-20.
[25]
Mohamadnejad N, Masoumi M. Javan noughabi analysis of factors affecting the tobacco use in Iran: A household budget survey. Sadra Medical Sciences Journal 2018; 6(3)
[26]
Suriani I, Aidalina NA, Al Sidek M, Ramalingam DR. Knowledge, attitude and practices on secondhand smoking among women who are exposed to secondhand smoking at home and at workplace. Int J Pub Health Clin Sci 2017; 4(1): 66-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103744]
[27]
Gharaibeh H, Haddad L, Alzyoud S, El-Shahawy O, Baker NA, Umlauf M. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in avoiding secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking employed women with higher education in Jordan. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011; 8(11): 4207-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8114207] [PMID: 22163203]
[28]
Burns N, Grove S, Gray J. Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders 2011.
[29]
Suriani I, Muhammad Hanafiah J, Minhat H, Aidalina M, Suhainizam M. Practices regarding secondhand smoking among Malay house wives in rural community in Jempol, Negeri Sembilan. Int J Pub Health Clin Sci 2015; 2(1): 148-58.
[30]
Díez-Izquierdo A, Cassanello P, Cartanyà A, et al. Al. Knowledge and attitudes toward thirdhand smoke among parents with children under 3 years in Spain. Pediatr Res 2018; 84: 645-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-018-0153-2]
[31]
Baheiraei A, Shirazi MG, Dehkordi ZR, Rahimi A. Prevalence of home smoking bans and its determinants in families with infants. Int J Pediatr 2018; 6: 6987-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijp.2017.27748.2404]
[32]
Huurre T, Aro H, Rahkonen O. Well-being and health behaviour by parental socioeconomic status: A follow-up study of adolescents aged 16 until age 32 years. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003; 38(5): 249-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-003-0630-7] [PMID: 12719840]
[33]
Ding D, Wahlgren DR, Liles S, Jones JA, Hughes SC, Hovell MF. Secondhand smoke avoidance by preteens living with smokers: to leave or stay? Addict Behav 2010; 35(11): 989-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.016] [PMID: 20634003]
[34]
Passey ME, Longman JM, Robinson J, Wiggers J, Jones LL. Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis. BMJ Open 2016; 6(3): e010260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010260] [PMID: 26988351]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy