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Current Neuropharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Overview of Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential of Non-Nitrogen Heterocyclics as Anticonvulsant Agents

Author(s): Rohit Pal, Karanvir Singh, Joyson Paul, Shah Alam Khan, Mohd. Javed Naim and Md. Jawaid Akhtar*

Volume 20, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 12 April, 2022

Page: [1519 - 1553] Pages: 35

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X19666210803144815

Price: $65

Abstract

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by the predisposition of unprovoked seizures affecting the neurobiological, psychological, cognitive, economic, and social wellbeing of the patient. As per the 2019 report by World Health Organization, it affects nearly 80% of the population, which comes from middle to low-income countries. It has been suggested that 70% of such cases can be treated effectively if properly diagnosed. It is one of the most common neurological diseases affecting 50 million people globally. Most of the antiepileptic drugs used in clinical practice are only 60-80% effective in controlling the disease. These drugs suffer from serious drawbacks of non-selectivity and toxicity that limit their clinical usefulness. Hence, there is a need to search for safe, potent, and effective anti-epileptic drugs. One of the emerging strategies to discover and develop selective and non-toxic anticonvulsant molecules focuses on the design of non-nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NNHC). Drugs such as valproic acid, gabapentin, viagabatrin, fluorofelbamate, tiagabine, progabide, pregabalin, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), etc. do not contain a nitrogen heterocyclic ring but are as effective anticonvulsants as conventional heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. This review covers the various classes of NNHC which have been developed in the recent past as anticonvulsants along with their chemistry, percentage yield, structure-activity relationship and biological activity. The most potent compound in each series has been identified for comparative studies, for further structural modification and to improve the pharmacokinetic profile. Various optimized synthetic pathways and diverse functionalities other than nitrogen-containing rings discussed in the article may help medicinal chemists to design safe and effective anticonvulsant drugs in near future.

Keywords: Non-nitrogen heterocyclics, anticonvulsant, amide, GABA, epilepsy, structure activity relationship, antiepileptic drugs.

Graphical Abstract
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