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Current Genomics


ISSN (Print): 1389-2029
ISSN (Online): 1875-5488

Analysis of the Fragile X Trinucleotide Repeat in Basques: Association of Premutation and Intermediate Sizes, Anchoring AGGs and Linked Microsatellites with Unstable Alleles

Author(s): M. I. Arrieta, J. M. Ramirez, M. Telez, P. Flores, B. Criado, M. Barasoain, I. Huerta and A. J. Gonzalez

Volume 9, Issue 3, 2008

Page: [191 - 199] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/138920208784340722

Price: $65


Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is associated with an unstable CGG repeat sequence in the 5 untranslated region in the first exon of the FMR1 gene which resides at chromosome position Xq27.3 and is coincident with the fragile site FRAXA. The CGG sequence is polymorphic with respect to size and purity of the repeat. Interpopulation variation in the polymorphism of the FMR1 gene and consequently, in the predisposition to FXS due to the prevalence of certain unstable alleles has been observed. Spanish Basque population is distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. We had previously reported preliminary data on the existence of FMR1 allele differences between two Basque valleys (Markina and Arratia). In the present work we extended the study to Uribe, Gernika, Durango, Goierri and Larraun, another five isolated valleys enclosing the whole area within the Spanish Basque region. We analyzed the prevalence of FMR1 premutated and intermediate/grey zone alleles. With the aim to complete the previous investigation about the stability of the Fragile X CGG repeat in Basque valleys, we also analyzed the existence of potentially unstable alleles, not only in relation with size and purity of CGG repeat but also in relation with DXS548 and FRAXAC1 haplotypes implicated in repeat instability. The data show that differences in allele frequencies as well as in the distribution of the mutational pathways previously identified are present among Basques. The data also suggest that compared with the analyzed Basque valleys, Gernika had increased frequency of susceptibility to instability alleles, although the prevalence of premutation and intermediate/ grey zone alleles in all the analyzed valleys was lower than that reported in Caucasian populations.

Keywords: Fragile X syndrome, FMR1 gene, CGG repeat, FRAXAC1, DXS548, basque country

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