Dementia is a syndrome resulting from chronic or progressive brain disease. Around 40% of worldwide dementia can be prevented or delayed by modifying 12 risk factors: low educational attainment in early life, mid-life hypertension, mid-life obesity, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, depression, physical inactivity, social isolation, diabetes mellitus, and air pollution. There is growing evidence that gastrointestinal tract microbiota may significantly contribute to dementia pathogenesis. In particular, gut dysbiosis can trigger metabolic diseases and the progression of low-grade systemic inflammation, being involved in much of the major modifiable risk factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between modifiable risk factors for dementia and the role of gut microbiota. We also suggest clinical implications for researchers in dementia-gut microbiota related fields.