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Current HIV Research

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Review Article

The Importance of Tissue Sanctuaries and Cellular Reservoirs of HIV-1

Author(s): William Kalada and Theodore James Cory*

Volume 20, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 21 February, 2022

Page: [102 - 110] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X20666211227161237

Price: $65

Abstract

Purpose of Review: There have been significant developments in the treatment of people living with HIV-1/AIDS with current antiretroviral therapies; however, these developments have not been able to achieve a functional or sterilizing cure for HIV-1. While there are multiple barriers, one such barrier is the existence of pharmacological sanctuaries and viral reservoirs where the concentration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal, which includes the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, central nervous system, lymph nodes, and myeloid cells. This review will focus on illustrating the significance of these sanctuaries, specific barriers to optimal antiretroviral concentrations in each of these sites, and potential strategies to overcome these barriers.

Recent Findings: Research and studies have shown that a uniform antiretroviral distribution is not achieved with current therapies. This may allow low-level replication associated with low antiretroviral concentrations in these sanctuaries/reservoirs. Many methods are being investigated to increase antiretroviral concentrations in these sites, such as blocking transporting enzymes functions, modulating transporter expression and nanoformulations of current antiretrovirals. While these methods have been shown to increase antiretroviral concentrations in the sanctuaries/reservoirs, no functional or sterilizing cure has been achieved due to these approaches.

Summary: New methods of increasing antiretroviral concentrations at the specific sites of HIV-1 replication has the potential to target cellular reservoirs. In order to optimize antiretroviral distribution into viral sanctuaries/reservoirs, additional research is needed.

Keywords: HIV-1, sanctuary, reservoir, transporter, nanoformulations, antiretroviral, GALT, RALT, CNS, monocytes.

Graphical Abstract
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