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Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-398X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6387

Review Article

Susceptibility to Rhinovirus-induced Early Wheezing as a Risk Factor for Subsequent Asthma Development

Author(s): Hannele Mikkola*, Minna Honkila, Terhi Tapiainen and Tuomas Jartti

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 03 January, 2022

Page: [86 - 94] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220103113813

Price: $65

Abstract

Rhinovirus is one of the two most common viral agents that cause bronchiolitis in young children. During the first 12 months, it is second to the respiratory syncytial virus, but after 12 months, it begins dominating the statistics. Wheezing and dry cough are typical clinical symptoms indicative of rhinovirus-induced bronchiolitis, although overlap of symptoms with other virus infections is common. Several studies have shown that atopic predisposition and reduced interferon responses increase susceptibility to rhinovirus-induced wheezing. More recent studies have found that certain genetic variations at strong asthma loci also increase susceptibility. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing in the early years of life is known to increase the risk of subsequent asthma development and may be associated with airway remodeling. This risk is increased by aeroallergen sensitization. Currently, there are no clinically approved preventive treatments for asthma. However, studies show promising results indicating that children with rhinovirus-affected first-time wheezing respond to bronchodilators in terms of less short-term symptoms and that controlling airway inflammatory responses with anti-inflammatory medication may markedly decrease asthma development. Also, enhancing resistance to respiratory viruses has been a topic of discussion. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are being developed with the aim of decreasing the incidence of asthma. Here, we review the current knowledge on rhinovirus-induced early wheezing as a risk factor for subsequent asthma development and related asthma-prevention strategies.

Keywords: Asthma, rhinovirus, polymorphism, corticosteroid, bronchiolitis, tachypnea.

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