The tropical parasitic infections account for more than 2 billion infections and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and account for several million deaths every year. Majorly parasitic infections in humans and animals are caused by protozoa and helminths. Chronic infections in the host can cause retardation, impairment of cognitive skills, development in young children and weaken the immune system. The burden is felt to a greater extent in developing countries due to poverty, inaccessibility to medicines and resistance observed to drugs. Thus, human health continues to be severely harmed by parasitic infections. Medicinal plants have received much attention as alternative sources of drugs. Zanthoxylum genus has been used ethnobotanically as an antiparasitic agent and the phytoconstituents in Zanthoxylum, show a wide variety of chemical substances with proven pharmacological actions such as alkaloids (isoquinolines and quinolines responsible for antitumor activity, antimalarial, antioxidant and antimicrobial actions), lignans, coumarins (antibacterial, antitumour, vasodilatory and anticoagulant activities), alkamide (strong insecticidal properties, anthelminthic, antitussive and analgesic anti antimalarial property). Therefore, this article is an attempt to review the existing literature that emphasizes on potential of genus Zanthoxylum as a source of lead compounds for the treatment of parasitic diseases.