Review Article

Gene Therapy, A Potential Therapeutic Tool for Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Applications, Challenges and Future Perspective

Author(s): Shalini Mani*, Divya Jindal and Manisha Singh

Volume 23, Issue 1, 2023

Published on: 25 May, 2022

Page: [20 - 40] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/1566523222666220328142427

Price: $65

Abstract

Neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders are the main risks for the health care system, exhibiting a huge socioeconomic load. The available range of pharmacotherapeutics mostly provides palliative consequences and fails to treat such conditions. The molecular etiology of various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders is mostly associated with a change in genetic background, which can be inherited/triggered by other environmental factors. To address such conditions, gene therapy is considered a potential approach claiming a permanent cure of the disease primarily by deletion, silencing, or edition of faulty genes and by insertion of healthier genes. In gene therapy, vectors (viral/nonvial) play an important role in delivering the desired gene to a specific region of the brain. Targeted gene therapy has unraveled opportunities for the treatment of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. For improved gene delivery, the current techniques mainly focus on designing a precise viral vector, plasmid transfection, nanotechnology, microRNA, and in vivo clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based therapy. These latest techniques have great benefits in treating predominant neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder, as well as rarer diseases. Nevertheless, all these delivery methods have their limitations, including immunogenic reactions, off-target effects, and a deficiency of effective biomarkers to appreciate the effectiveness of therapy. In this review, we present a summary of the current methods in targeted gene delivery, followed by the limitations and future direction of gene therapy for the cure of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Keywords: Gene therapy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disease, CRISPR-Cas9, viral vectors, genes.

Graphical Abstract
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