Generic placeholder image

Anti-Infective Agents


ISSN (Print): 2211-3525
ISSN (Online): 2211-3533

Review Article

Impact of the Current Scenario and Future Perspectives for the Management of Oral Diseases: Remarkable Contribution of Herbs in Dentistry

Author(s): Ashima Ahuja* and Sonia Singh

Volume 20, Issue 5, 2022

Published on: 18 August, 2022

Article ID: e050422203119 Pages: 19

DOI: 10.2174/2211352520666220405124929

Price: $65


Background: Herbs are the primary feedstock for treating numerous infectious diseases occurring in humans. The herb serves as a potential resource for managing dental disorders by maintaining oral hygiene and reducing the growth of microbes through the use of antimicrobial agents. The body-to-mouth connection helps essential facets that reduce the vulnerability of inflammation and infections in the mouth. The herbal product offers a better alternative for oral care than antibiotics due to reduced side effects and increased patient compliance.

Herbs used in dentistry contain antimicrobial, antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antiviral properties that help in reducing irritation, infections, and pain in the oral cavity. The resistance to antibiotics and overcoming their untoward side effects promoted the usage of herbals in dentistry. In addition, due to the affordability issues of allopathic medicines in rural areas, the dependency of poor people on herbal medicines has gained significant popularity in the Indian subcontinent.

Objective: Oral disorders would be a significant health setback for humankind due to their severity if they remained untreated. This review promotes the efforts made to overcome the side effects of allopathic medicines and provide cost-effective herbal treatment for oral care. Oral disorders cause various infections like tooth decay, dental caries, gingivitis, fungal, viral and bacterial infections, plaque formation, pemphigus vulgaris, pyorrhoea and mouth ulcers. The use of herbal extracts of tulsi, neem, and turmeric as a natural healer and the safest antimicrobial provides better dental care treatment. In addition, aromatic agents like tulsi, neem, mint, clove, ginger, and turmeric as dental products have increased palatability for patients who have lost their taste buds with growing age and diseases.

Methods: The literature search was conducted through academics, Google scholar, PubMed, WHO, and using keywords dentistry, antimicrobials, herbs for dental management, experimental findings, bacterial strains, oral health, and hygiene.

Results: The beneficial results of using various antimicrobial-containing herbs are gaining popularity throughout the world. Subsequently, it has been further suggested that antimicrobials and herbal extracts maintain oral hygiene, reduce bacterial lichens and biofilm adhesion, help in the management of oral infections, and improve health.

Conclusion: Screening of newer antimicrobial formulations like dentifrices, gargles, throat paints, mouthwashes, and mouth sprays containing cost-effective herbals for promoting healthcare plays a pivotal role in developing herbal industries for dental care.

Keywords: Dentistry, oral disorders, herbals, antimicrobials, health, hygiene, healthcare.

Graphical Abstract
Tchatchedre, M.; Amoussa, A.M.; Houinato, M.; Yedomonhan, H.; Lagnika, L. Ethnobotanical survey and phytogeographical study of plants species from genus Acacia in Benin. J. Med. Plants Res., 2019, 13(9), 199-12.
Legacy Community Health. The Importance of Good Dental Hygiene. Legacy Community Health provides Adult and Pediatric Dental Services at its Montrose, Baker-Ripley, Lyons and San Jacinto Clinics. Available from: (Accessed on: July 4, 2021).
Joanne, B. Oral Health: The Mouth-Body Connection 2012. Available from: (Accessed on: June 28, 2021).
Zhou, S.F.; Xue, C.C.; Yu, X.Q.; Wang, G. Metabolic activation of herbal and dietary constituents and its clinical and toxicological implications: An update. Curr. Drug Metab., 2007, 8(6), 526-553.
[] [PMID: 17691916]
Gupta, A.; Purohit, A. Effectiveness of curry-leaf mouthwash in maintaining salivary and tongue ph as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash: A randomised controlled trial. J. Nat. Ayurvedic Med., 2018, 2(1), 1-9.
Sravani, K.; Suchetha, A.; Mundinamane, D.B.; Bhat, D.; Chandran, N.; Rajeshwari, H.R. Plant products in dental and periodontal disease: An overview. Inter. J. Med. and Dent. Sci, 2015, 4(2), 913-921.
Ghisleni, D.D.M.; Braga, M.S.; Kikuchi, I.S. Braşoveanu, M.; Nemţanu, M.R.; Dua, K.; Pinto, T.J. The microbial quality aspects and decontamination approaches for the herbal medicinal plants and products: An in-depth review. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016, 22(27), 4264-4287.
[] [PMID: 27339428]
Naveed, N.; Kumar, K.M.; Soundarajan, S.; Srinivasan, S. The use of neem in oral health. Res. J. Pharm. Tech., 2014, 7(9), 1060-1064.
Miller, F.Y.; Campus, G.; Giuliana, G.; Piscopo, M.R.; Pizzo, G. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2012, 18(34), 5532-5541.
[] [PMID: 22632397]
Boundless, Microbiology Bacterial Diseases of the Mouth., Available from: (Accessed on: July 10, 2021).
Mathur, R.; Singhavi, H.R.; Malik, A.; Nair, S.; Chaturvedi, P. Role of poor oral hygiene in causation of oral cancer a review of literature. Indian J. Surg. Oncol., 2019, 10(1), 184-195.
[] [PMID: 30948897]
Oji, C.; Chukwuneke, F. Poor oral Hygiene may be the sole cause of oral cancer. J. Maxillofac. Oral Surg., 2012, 11(4), 379-383.
[] [PMID: 24293926]
Jonathan, E. How Bad Oral Hygiene Can Lead to Oral Cancer., General Dentistry Available from: (Accessed on: July 5, 2021).
Orbak, R.; Bayraktar, C.; Kavrut, F.; Gundoghu, C. Poor oral hygiene and dental trauma as the precipitating factors of squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. Extra, 2005, 41(6), 109-113.
Loesche, W.L. Medical Microbiology. Microbiology of dental decay and periodontal disease; Baron, S., Ed.; University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston: TX, 1996.
He, X.S.; Shi, W.Y. Oral microbiology: Past, present and future. Int. J. Oral Sci., 2009, 1(2), 47-58.
[] [PMID: 20687296]
Mira, A.; Simon-Soro, A.; Curtis, M.A. Role of microbial communities in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and caries. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2017, 44(18)(Suppl. 18), S23-S38.
[] [PMID: 28266108]
Grinde, B.; Olsen, I. The role of viruses in oral disease. J. Oral Microbiol., 2010, 2(1), 1-6.
[] [PMID: 21523232]
Santosh, A.B.; Muddana, K. Viral infections of oral cavity. J. Family Med. Prim. Care, 2020, 9(1), 36-42.
[] [PMID: 32110562]
Healthline. First aid for toothache relief. Available from: (Accessed on: July 3, 2021).
Tayal, E.; Sardana, D.; Indushekar, K.R.; Saraf, B.G.; Sheoran, N. Current perspectives on use of Aloe vera in dentistry. European J. Med. Plants, 2014, 4(12), 1408-1419.
Mangaiyarkarasi, S.P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, P.K.; Kaur, R.P. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2015, 7(5)(Suppl. 1), S255-S259.
[PMID: 26015726]
Neena, I.E.; Ganesh, E.; Poornima, P.; Korishettar, R. An ancient herb Aloe vera in dentistry: A review. J. Oral Res. Rev., 2015, 7(1), 25-30.
Megalaa, N.; Kayalvizhi, G.; Silas, A.J.; Sajeev, R.; Kumar, S. Role of herbal leaf extracts in caries prevention. Int. J. Contemp. Med. Res, 2014, 1(2), 71-78.
Nair, S.K.; Prasad, B.M. Holy herb tulsi as a cure for oral and periodontal disease – A review. EC Dental Science, 2017, 10(4), 106-109.
Patil, A.; Gunjal, S.; Latif, A. Tulsi: A medicinal herb for oral health. Galore Int. J. Health Sci. Res, 2018, 3(4), 37-39.
Megalaa, N.; Thirumurugan, K.; Kayalvizhi, G.; Sajeev, R.; Kayalvizhi, E.B.; Ramesh, V.; Vargeese, A. A comparative evaluation of the anticaries efficacy of herbal extracts (Tulsi and Black myrobalans) and sodium fluoride as mouthrinses in children: A randomized controlled trial. Indian J. Dent. Res., 2018, 29(6), 760-767.
[] [PMID: 30589005]
Fayed, M. Mentha piperita L: A promising dental care herb mainly against cariogenic bacteria. Univers. J. Pharma. Res., 2019, 4(3), 33-38.
Raghavan, R.; Devi, M.P.S.; Varghese, M.; Joseph, A.; Madhavan, S.S.; Sreedevi, P.V. Effectiveness of Mentha piperita leaf extracts against oral pathogens: An in vitro study. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract., 2018, 19(9), 1042-1046.
[] [PMID: 30287701]
Jannat, K.; Rahman, T.; Reeck, G.R.; Akter, T.; Nahar, N.; Jahan, R.; Rahmatullah, M. Azadirachta indica Juss. (Meliaceae): It’s use against dental diseases. Sci. Ricerca, 2019, 3(6), 778-788.
Paul, S.; Rithesh, K.; Savita, S. Neem: A herbal remedy for periodontitis. Glob. J. Res. Anal., 2017, 6(6), 2431-2432.
Bedi, H.; Chandrashekar, K.T.; Prakash, H. Effect of neem extract on periodontal status & AST levels in chronic periodontitis: A clinical & biochemical study. J. Pierre Fauchard Acad., 2011, 25(1), 55-61.
Lakshmi, T.; Krishnan, V.; Rajendran, R.; Madhusudhanan, N. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2015, 9(17), 41-44.
[] [PMID: 26009692]
Kaushik, A.; Tanwar, R.; Kaushik, M. Ethnomedicine: Applications of neem (Azadirachta indica) in dentistry. Dent. Hypotheses, 2012, 3(3), 112-114.
Ravi, K.; Divyashree, P. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2014, 8(16), 96-100.
[] [PMID: 25125881]
Shetty, Y.S.; Shankarapillai, R.; Vivekanandan, G.; Shetty, R.M.; Reddy, C.S.; Reddy, H.; Mangalekar, S.B. Evaluation of the efficacy of guava extract as an antimicrobial agent on periodontal pathogens. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract., 2018, 19(6), 690-697.
[] [PMID: 29959298]
Nayak, N.; Varghese, J.; Shetty, S.; Bhat, V.; Durgekar, T.; Lobo, R.; Nayak, U.Y.; Vishwanath, U. Evaluation of a mouth rinse containing guava leaf extract as part of comprehensive oral care regimen- a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2019, 19(1), 1-10.
[] [PMID: 30606178]
Felt Family Dentistry. Pay Layton Felt Family Dentistry 2020. Available from: on: Feb 01, 2022).
King, S. 5 reasons why eating carrots is good for oral health | SNODGRASS-KING. Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Home Remedies for Dental Health. Clove Dental. 2017. Available from:,associated%20with%20various%20dental%20disorders (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Can clove oil help relieve dental pain? Verywell Health. Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Zhang, L.; Lokeshwar, B.L. Medicinal properties of the Jamaican pepper plant Pimenta dioica and allspice. Curr. Drug Targets, 2012, 13(14), 1900-1906.
[] [PMID: 23140298]
Varghese, A.; Babu, H.M.; Kukkera, P.N. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of Murraya koenigii and chlorhexidine gluconate in the treatment of gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J. Indian Soc. Periodontol., 2018, 22(5), 427-432.
[] [PMID: 30210192]
Math, M.V.; Balasubramaniam, P. Curry leaves. Br. Dent. J., 2004, 197(9), 519-520.
[] [PMID: 15543096]
Verywellhealth. What Is Bloodroot? Available from:,properties%20beneficial%20to%20oral%20health (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Greene, A. Bloodroot. Knopf Publishing Group; 2010 Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Al-Attass, S.A.; Zahran, F.M.; Turkistany, S.A. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health. Saudi Med. J., 2016, 37(3), 235-244.
[] [PMID: 26905343]
Pourabbasa, R.; Delazarb, A.; Chitsaza, M.T. The Effect of German chamomile mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 2005, 2, 105-109.
Goes, P.; Dutra, C.S.; Lisboa, M.R.; Gondim, D.V.; Leitão, R.; Brito, G.A.; Rego, R.O. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. J. Oral Sci., 2016, 58(4), 569-574.
[] [PMID: 28025442]
Dentaliving. Chamomile tea bags help reduce swelling. Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
[52] Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Bodet, C.; Grenier, D.; Chandad, F.; Ofek, I.; Steinberg, D.; Weiss, E.I. Potential oral health benefits of cranberry. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2008, 48(7), 672-680.
[] [PMID: 18663617]
Bonifait, L.; Grenier, D. Cranberry polyphenols: Potential benefits for dental caries and periodontal disease. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 2010, 76, a130.
[PMID: 20943032]
Mukherjee, M.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Kundu, D. Exploring the role of cranberry polyphenols in periodontits: A brief review. J. Indian Soc. Periodontol., 2014, 18(2), 136-139.
[] [PMID: 24872617]
[56] Available from: (Accessed Feb 01, 2022).
Al-Mobeeriek, A. Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dent., 2011, 3(3), 53-58.
[] [PMID: 23674915]
Taheri, J.B.; Azimi, S.; Rafieian, N.; Zanjani, H.A. Herbs in dentistry. Int. Dent. J., 2011, 61(6), 287-296.
[] [PMID: 22117784]
Zahid, T.M.; Alblowi, J.A. Anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque effects of Commiphora myrrh mouth wash: A preliminary pilot clinical study. Open Dent. J., 2019, 13, 1-5.
Eid, R.A.A. Efficacy of Commiphora myrrh mouthwash on early wound healing after tooth extraction: A randomized controlled trial. Saudi Dent. J., 2021, 33(1), 44-54.
[] [PMID: 33473242]
Alotaibi, R.A.; Aldahlawi, S.; Alyami, F.M. The effects of Commiphoramyrrh mouthwash verses chlorhexidine on dental plaque and gingivitis: A comparative study. J. Res. Med. Dent. Sci., 2020, 8(4), 65-70.
Khairnar, M.S.; Pawar, B.; Marawar, P.P.; Mani, A. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent. J. Indian Soc. Periodontol., 2013, 17(6), 741-747.
[] [PMID: 24554883]
Ashwlayan, V.D.; Kumar, A.; Verma, M.; Garg, V.G.; Gupta, S.K. Therapeutic potential of Calendula officinalis. Pharm. Pharmacol. Int. J., 2018, 6(2), 149-155.
Gallagher, J. Natural toothache remedy for immediate toothache relief. LearningHerbs. 2010. Available from: (Accessed on: Feb 01, 2022).
Samal, H.B.; Patra, Ch.N.; Boyeena, L.; Sreenivas, S.A.; Das, I.J. Design, characterization and clinical evaluation of curcumin dental film for the treatment of periodontitis. Drug Deliv. Lett., 2021, 11(1), 81-95.
Sasano, T.; Uneyama, H.; Hummel, T. Editorial: Sensory science of oral health for creating new preventive medicines. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016, 22(15), 2193-2194.
[] [PMID: 26898914]
Preshaw, P.M. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention. BMC Oral Health, 2015, 15(1)(Suppl. 1), S5.
[] [PMID: 26390822]
Ganesan, S. Traditional oral care medicinal plants survey of tamil nadu. Nat. Prod. Radiance, 2008, 7(2), 166-172.
Koregol, A.C.; Kalburgi, N.B.; Kotecha, A.K. Acacia catechu and Acacia farnesiana as antimicrobial agents against periodontal pathogens: An in vitro assessment. J. Appl. Dent. Med. Sci., 2016, 2, 32-36.
Oluwasina, O.O.; Ezenwosu, I.V.; Ogidi, C.O.; Oyetayo, V.O. Antimicrobial potential of toothpaste formulated from extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Dennettia tripetala and Jatropha curcas latex against some oral pathogenic microorganisms. AMB Express, 2019, 9(1), 20.
[] [PMID: 30715633]
Rao, M.; Kranthi, J.; Rao, K.S.; Vallabh, S. Arimedadi Taila, an alternative remedy in the management of dental diseases. Int. J. Innov. Res. Dev., 2016, 3(4), 55-58.
Phuyal, N.; Jha, P.K.; Prasad Raturi, P.; Rajbhandary, S. Zanthoxylum armatum DC.: Current knowledge, gaps and opportunities in Nepal. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2019, 229, 326-341.
[] [PMID: 30166217]
Kanwal, R.; Arshad, M.; Bibi, Y.; Asif, S.; Chaudhari, S.K. Evaluation of ethnopharmacological and antioxidant potential of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. J. Chem., 2015, 2015, 1-8.
Nagpal, M.; Sood, S. Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview. J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med., 2013, 4(1), 3-7.
[] [PMID: 23633828]
Naidu, S.; Suresh, A. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in dentistry. Int. J. Dev. Res., 2018, 8(7), 21828-21831.
Khan, S.S.; Verma, R.; Riaz, A.; Baranwal, M. Curcuma longa - A propitious future in dentistry. Int. J. Contemp. Med. Res, 2015, 2(4), 776-778.
Kuwatada, J.S.; Raja, M.; Sood, P. Turmeric: A boon to oral health. Int. J. Oral Care Res., 2017, 5(4), 338-341.
Devaraj, S.D.; Neelakantan, P. Curcumin- pharmacological actions and its role in dentistry. Asian J. Pharm. Res. Health Care, 2014, 6(1), 19-22.
Ramakrishna, N.; Saidulu, Ch. Medicinal plants used by ethnic people of adilabad district, andhra pradesh, India. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Allied Sci., 2014, 3(2), 51-59.
Sharma, V.; Kalsi, D.S. Effects of topical application of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of early periodontal diseases. Indian J. Dent. Sci., 2016, 8(3), 118-123.
Narayanan, N.; Thangavelu, L. Salvia officinalis in dentistry. Dent. Hypotheses, 2015, 6(1), 27-30.
Beheshti-Rouy, M.; Azarsina, M.; Rezaie-Soufi, L.; Alikhani, M.Y.; Roshanaie, G.; Komaki, S. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: A randomized clinical trial. Iran. J. Microbiol., 2015, 7(3), 173-177.
[PMID: 26668706]
Gupta, D.; Gupta, R.K.; Jain, A.; Bindhumadhav, S. Sangeeta; Garg, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Chattu, V.K. Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health. Pharmacognosy Res., 2016, 8(3), 169-172.
[] [PMID: 27365983]
Maryland Holistic Dentistry. Available from: (Accessed on: July 17, 2021).
Yang, J.Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, G. Black pepper and its bioactive constituent piperine: Promising therapeutic strategies for oral lichen planus. Inflammopharmacology, 2019, 27(1), 5-13.
[] [PMID: 30343451]
Hashemi, M.S.; Hashempur, M.H.; Lotfi, M.H.; Hemat, H.; Mousavi, Z.; Emtiazy, M.; Vaziri, F. The efficacy of asafoetida (Ferula asa-foetida oleo-gum resin) versus chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Eur. J. Integr. Med., 2019, 29, 1-5.
Mahendra, P.; Bisht, S. Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity. Pharmacogn. Rev., 2015, 79(4), 578-592.
[PMID: 23055640]
Vellayappan, R.; Varghese, S.S. Antibacterial effect of the crude extract of garlic on Streptococcus mutans. Drug Invent. Today, 2018, 10(3), 3258-3261.
Sudarshan, R. Garlic and onion in dentistry. Int. J. Ayurveda Res., 2012, 3(4), 556-558.
Zini, A.; Mann, J.; Mazor, S.; Vered, Y. Beneficial effect of aged garlic extract on periodontitis: A randomized controlled double-blind clinical study. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 2020, 67(3), 297-301.
[] [PMID: 33293771]
Shafiee, F.; Moghadamnia, A.A.; Shahandeh, Z.; Sadighian, F.; Khodadadi, E. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Electron. Physician, 2016, 8(12), 3363-3368.
[] [PMID: 28163849]
Gharajalar, S.N.; Hassanzade, M. Antibacterial properties of Carum copticum essential oil against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolated from canine dental plaque. Vet. Med. (Praha), 2017, 62(12), 654-660.
Albuquerque, A.C.L.; Pereira, M.S.V.; Silva, D.F.; Pereira, L.F.; Viana, F.A.C.; Higino, J.S.; Barbosa, M.R.V. The anti-adherence effect of Lippia sidoides Cham: Extract against microorganisms of dental biofilm. Rev. Bras. Plantas Med., 2013, 15(1), 41-46.
Besra, M.; Kumar, V. In vitro investigation of antimicrobial activities of ethnomedicinal plants against dental caries pathogens. 3 Biotech, 2018, 8(5), 257.
Vahabi, S.; Najafi, E.; Alizadeh, S. In vitro antimicrobial effects of some herbal essences against oral pathogens. J. Med. Plants Res., 2011, 5(19), 4870-4878.
Banavar Ravi, S.; Nirupad, S.; Chippagiri, P.; Pandurangappa, R. Antibacterial effects of natural herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can they be potential additives in dentifrices? Int. J. Dent., 2017, 2017, 4921614.
[] [PMID: 29201054]
de Oliveira Marreiro, R.; Bandeira, M.F.C.L.; de Souza, T.P.; de Almeida, M.C.; Bendaham, K.; Venâncio, G.N.; Rodrigues, I.C.; Coelho, C.N.; Milério, P.S.L.L.; de Oliveira, G.P.; de Oliveira Conde, N.C. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dent., 2014, 6, 9-13.
[PMID: 24501546]
Hejazinia, F.; Fozouni, L.; Azami, N.S.; Mousavi, S. The Anti-biofilm activity of oregano essential oil against dental plaque-forming Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Kirmanshah, 2020, 24(3), e107680.
Babadi, F.; Amin, M.; Sharafi, N.; Saki, M. Comparison of the antibacterial effects of jaftex herbal mouthwash with Matrica and Persica on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. J. Res. Med. Dent. Sci., 2018, 6(5), 349-354.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy