Generic placeholder image

Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-398X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6387

Review Article

An Inclusive Perception on Pathogenesis, Epidemiology and Risk Factors Associated With Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Author(s): Manish Dwivedi*, Mahima Bhat and Aiswarya Radha Krishnan

Volume 18, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 04 August, 2022

Page: [190 - 200] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220501133152

Price: $65


Tuberculosis is one of the most common and oldest human afflictions caused by the deadly pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its infection is drastically increasing worldwide with time despite the application of various antibiotics and live attenuated vaccines. The major risk factor associated with tuberculosis is the long-term malfunction of the respiratory system that increases deaths, whereas the continuous emergence of drug-resistant MTB strains (MDR/TDR/XDR) acts as a driving force to accelerate additional obstacles to humankind. Researchers are effortlessly in-volved in a systematic examination of tuberculosis and drug designing against it, but still, we could not find a permanent cure for tuberculosis. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to analyse patho-genesis, epidemiology, and associated risk factors to plan an overall strategy against this deadly dis-ease. In the present study, we have gone through a comprehensive literature survey to provide all related information that may assist us in understanding this disease and designing strategic plan-ning. This study would fill the gap created due to a lack of knowledge on MTB infection and mo-lecular mechanisms, which is the biggest hurdle in finding a therapeutic lead against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium, human diseases, drug-resistant, respiratory, tuberculosis, infection, MTB infection.

Graphical Abstract
Zaman K. Tuberculosis: A global health problem. J Health Popul Nutr 2010; 28(2): 111-3.
[] [PMID: 20411672]
Sandhu GK. Tuberculosis: Current situation, challenges and overview of its control programs in India. J Glob Infect Dis 2011; 3(2): 143-50.
[] [PMID: 21731301]
Smith I. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16(3): 463-96.
[] [PMID: 12857778]
Russell DG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Here today, and here tomorrow. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2001; 2(8): 569-77.
[] [PMID: 11483990]
Chai Q, Zhang Y, Liu CH. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An adaptable pathogen associated with multiple human diseases. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8: 158.
Vergne I, Chua J, Singh SB, Deretic V. Cell biology of mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2004; 20(1): 367-94.
[] [PMID: 15473845]
Delogu G, Sali M, Fadda G. The biology of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2013; 5(1): e2013070.
[] [PMID: 24363885]
Fogel N. Tuberculosis: A disease without boundaries. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2015; 95(5): 527-31.
[] [PMID: 26198113]
Riley RL, Mills CC, O’Grady F, Sultan LU, Wittstadt F, Shivpuri DN. Infectiousness of air from a tuberculosis ward. Ultraviolet irradiation of infected air: Comparative infectiousness of different patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 85: 511-25.
[PMID: 14492300]
Armstrong JA, Hart PD. Response of cultured macrophages to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with observations on fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. J Exp Med 1971; 134(3 Pt 1): 713-40.
[] [PMID: 15776571]
Schlesinger LS. Macrophage phagocytosis of virulent but not attenuated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by mannose receptors in addition to complement receptors. J Immunol 1993; 150(7): 2920-30.
[PMID: 8454864]
Cywes C, Godenir NL, Hoppe HC, et al. Nonopsonic binding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to human complement receptor type 3 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Infect Immun 1996; 64(12): 5373-83.
[] [PMID: 8945590]
Cywes C, Hoppe HC, Daffé M, Ehlers MR. Nonopsonic binding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to complement receptor type 3 is mediated by capsular polysaccharides and is strain dependent. Infect Immun 1997; 65(10): 4258-66.
[] [PMID: 9317035]
Schlesinger LS, Bellinger-Kawahara CG, Payne NR, Horwitz MA. Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by human monocyte complement receptors and complement component C3. J Immunol 1990; 144(7): 2771-80.
[PMID: 2108212]
Hirsch CS, Ellner JJ, Russell DG, Rich EA. Complement receptor-mediated uptake and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 1994; 152(2): 743-53.
[PMID: 8283049]
Schlesinger LS, Hull SR, Kaufman TM. Binding of the terminal mannosyl units of lipoarabinomannan from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to human macrophages. J Immunol 1994; 152(8): 4070-9.
[PMID: 8144972]
Downing JF, Pasula R, Wright JR, Twigg HL III, Martin WJ II. Surfactant protein a promotes attachment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to alveolar macrophages during infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92(11): 4848-52.
[] [PMID: 7761411]
Pasula R, Downing JF, Wright JR, Kachel DL, Davis TE Jr, Martin WJ II. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) mediates attachment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to murine alveolar macrophages. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1997; 17(2): 209-17.
[] [PMID: 9271309]
Ernst JD. Macrophage receptors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun 1998; 66(4): 1277-81.
[] [PMID: 9529042]
Pugin J, Heumann ID, Tomasz A, et al. CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor. Immunity 1994; 1(6): 509-16.
[] [PMID: 7534618]
Peterson PK, Gekker G, Hu S, et al. CD14 receptor-mediated uptake of nonopsonized Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human microglia. Infect Immun 1995; 63(4): 1598-602.
[] [PMID: 7534279]
Gatfield J, Pieters J. Essential role for cholesterol in entry of mycobacteria into macrophages. Science 2000; 288(5471): 1647-50.
[] [PMID: 10834844]
Clemens DL, Horwitz MA. Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome and evidence that phagosomal maturation is inhibited. J Exp Med 1995; 181(1): 257-70.
[] [PMID: 7807006]
Via LE, Deretic D, Ulmer RJ, Hibler NS, Huber LA, Deretic V. Arrest of mycobacterial phagosome maturation is caused by a block in vesicle fusion between stages controlled by rab5 and rab7. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(20): 13326-31.
[] [PMID: 9148954]
Jain M, Petzold CJ, Schelle MW, et al. Lipidomics reveals control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence lipids via metabolic coupling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104(12): 5133-8.
[] [PMID: 17360366]
Ouellet H, Johnston JB, de Montellano PR. Cholesterol catabolism as a therapeutic target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Trends Microbiol 2011; 19(11): 530-9.
[] [PMID: 21924910]
Osada-Oka M, Goda N, Saiga H, et al. Metabolic adaptation to glycolysis is a basic defense mechanism of macrophages for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Int Immunol 2019; 31(12): 781-93.
[] [PMID: 31201418]
Ghazaei C. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lipids: Insights into molecular mechanisms from persistence to virulence. J Res Med Sci 2018; 23(1): 63.
[] [PMID: 30181745]
Queiroz A, Medina-Cleghorn D, Marjanovic O, Nomura DK, Riley LW. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Pathog Dis 2015; 73(8): ftv066.
[] [PMID: 26319139]
Dannenberg AM Jr, Rook GA. Pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis: An interplay of tissue-damaging and macrophage-activating immune responses-dual mechanisms that control bacillary multiplication. Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. In: Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. American Society of Microbiology 1994; pp. 459-83.
Brightbill HD, Libraty DH, Krutzik SR, et al. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science 1999; 285(5428): 732-6.
[] [PMID: 10426995]
Pecora ND, Gehring AJ, Canaday DH, Boom WH, Harding CV. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LprA is a lipoprotein agonist of TLR2 that regulates innate immunity and APC function. J Immunol 2006; 177(1): 422-9.
[] [PMID: 16785538]
Gehring AJ, Dobos KM, Belisle JT, Harding CV, Boom WH. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LprG (Rv1411c): A novel TLR-2 ligand that inhibits human macrophage class II MHC antigen processing. J Immunol 2004; 173(4): 2660-8.
[] [PMID: 15294983]
Quesniaux VJ, Nicolle DM, Torres D, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent-positive and TLR2-independent-negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannans. J Immunol 2004; 172(7): 4425-34.
[] [PMID: 15034058]
Gilleron M, Himoudi N, Adam O, et al. Mycobacterium smegmatis phosphoinositols-glyceroarabinomannans. Structure and localization of alkali-labile and alkali-stable phosphoinositides. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(1): 117-24.
[] [PMID: 8995236]
Noss EH, Pai RK, Sellati TJ, et al. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inhibition of macrophage class II MHC expression and antigen processing by 19-kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol 2001; 167(2): 910-8.
[] [PMID: 11441098]
Fortune SM, Solache A, Jaeger A, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-γ through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol 2004; 172(10): 6272-80.
[] [PMID: 15128816]
Abel B, Thieblemont N, Quesniaux VJ, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 expression is required to control chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. J Immunol 2002; 169(6): 3155-62.
[] [PMID: 12218133]
Pompei L, Jang S, Zamlynny B, et al. Disparity in IL-12 release in dendritic cells and macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is due to use of distinct TLRs. J Immunol 2007; 178(8): 5192-9.
[] [PMID: 17404302]
Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 2006; 311(5768): 1770-3.
[] [PMID: 16497887]
Auricchio G, Garg SK, Martino A, et al. Role of macrophage phospholipase D in natural and CpG-induced antimycobacterial activity. Cell Microbiol 2003; 5(12): 913-20.
[] [PMID: 14641176]
Salgame P. Host innate and Th1 responses and the bacterial factors that control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Curr Opin Immunol 2005; 17(4): 374-80.
[] [PMID: 15963709]
Estaquier J, Idziorek T, Zou W, et al. T helper type 1/T helper type 2 cytokines and T cell death: Preventive effect of interleukin 12 on activation-induced and CD95 (FAS/APO-1)-mediated apoptosis of CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. J Exp Med 1995; 182(6): 1759-67.
[] [PMID: 7500020]
Brombacher F, Kastelein RA, Alber G. Novel IL-12 family members shed light on the orchestration of Th1 responses. Trends Immunol 2003; 24(4): 207-12.
[] [PMID: 12697453]
Verreck FA, de Boer T, Langenberg DM, et al. Human IL-23-producing type 1 macrophages promote but IL-10-producing type 2 macrophages subvert immunity to (myco)bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101(13): 4560-5.
[] [PMID: 15070757]
Flynn JL, Chan J. Immune evasion by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Living with the enemy. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15(4): 450-5.
[] [PMID: 12900278]
Tessier PA, Naccache PH, Clark-Lewis I, Gladue RP, Neote KS, McColl SR. Chemokine networks in vivo: Involvement of C-X-C and C-C chemokines in neutrophil extravasation in vivo in response to TNF-alpha. J Immunol 1997; 159(7): 3595-602.
[PMID: 9317159]
Lande R, Giacomini E, Grassi T, et al. IFN-α β released by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human dendritic cells induces the expression of CXCL10: Selective recruitment of NK and activated T cells. J Immunol 2003; 170(3): 1174-82.
[] [PMID: 12538673]
Peters W, Scott HM, Chambers HF, Flynn JL, Charo IF, Ernst JD. Chemokine receptor 2 serves an early and essential role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98(14): 7958-63.
[] [PMID: 11438742]
Peters W, Cyster JG, Mack M, et al. CCR2-dependent trafficking of F4/80dim macrophages and CD11cdim/intermediate dendritic cells is crucial for T cell recruitment to lungs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol 2004; 172(12): 7647-53.
[] [PMID: 15187146]
Floto RA, MacAry PA, Boname JM, et al. Dendritic cell stimulation by mycobacterial Hsp70 is mediated through CCR5. Science 2006; 314(5798): 454-8.
[] [PMID: 17053144]
Algood HM, Flynn JL. CCR5-deficient mice control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection despite increased pulmonary lymphocytic infiltration. J Immunol 2004; 173(5): 3287-96.
[] [PMID: 15322191]
Bromley SK, Peterson DA, Gunn MD, Dustin ML. Cutting edge: Hierarchy of chemokine receptor and TCR signals regulating T cell migration and proliferation. J Immunol 2000; 165(1): 15-9.
[] [PMID: 10861029]
Buettner M, Meinken C, Bastian M, et al. Inverse correlation of maturity and antibacterial activity in human dendritic cells. J Immunol 2005; 174(7): 4203-9.
[] [PMID: 15778382]
Humphreys IR, Stewart GR, Turner DJ, et al. A role for dendritic cells in the dissemination of mycobacterial infection. Microbes Infect 2006; 8(5): 1339-46.
[] [PMID: 16697232]
Hanekom WA, Mendillo M, Manca C, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. J Infect Dis 2003; 188(2): 257-66.
[] [PMID: 12854081]
Ferrero E, Biswas P, Vettoretto K, et al. Macrophages exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis release chemokines able to recruit selected leucocyte subpopulations: Focus on gammadelta cells. Immunology 2003; 108(3): 365-74.
[] [PMID: 12603603]
Munk ME, Gatrill AJ, Kaufmann SH. Target cell lysis and IL-2 secretion by gamma/delta T lymphocytes after activation with bacteria. J Immunol 1990; 145(8): 2434-9.
[PMID: 2145360]
Gansert JL, Kiessler V, Engele M, et al. Human NKT cells express granulysin and exhibit antimycobacterial activity. J Immunol 2003; 170(6): 3154-61.
[] [PMID: 12626573]
Prajapati S, Upadhyay K, Mukherjee A, et al. High prevalence of primary drug resistance in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis in India. Paediatr Int Child Health 2016; 36(3): 214-8.
[] [PMID: 26052730]
Sahana KS, Saldanha PRM, Kushwah S, Prabhu AS. Management practices of tuberculosis in children among pediatric practitioners in Mangalore, South India. Indian J Tuberc 2018; 65(3): 195-9.
[] [PMID: 29933860]
Singh SK, Kashyap GC, Puri P. Potential effect of household environment on prevalence of tuberculosis in India: evidence from the recent round of a cross-sectional survey. BMC Pulm Med 2018; 18(1): 66.
[] [PMID: 29724218]
Kolappan C, Subramani R, Swaminathan S. Tuberculosis mortality in a rural population from South India. Indian J Tuberc 2016; 63(2): 100-5.
[] [PMID: 27451819]
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control: Surveillance, planning, financing: WHO report 2005. World Health Organization 2005.
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2013. World Health Organization 2013.
Perez-Velez CM, Marais BJ. Tuberculosis in children. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(4): 348-61.
[] [PMID: 22830465]
Marais BJ, Gupta A, Starke JR, El Sony A. Tuberculosis in women and children. Lancet 2010; 375(9731): 2057-9.
[] [PMID: 20488522]
Rebecca B, Chacko A, Verghese V, Rose W. Spectrum of pediatric tuberculosis in a tertiary care setting in south India. J Trop Pediatr 2018; 64(6): 544-7.
[] [PMID: 29447374]
Chawla K, Kumar A, Shenoy VP, Chakrabarty S, Satyamoorthy K. Genotypic detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a tertiary care centre in south Coastal Karnataka, India. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018; 13: 250-3.
[] [PMID: 29421317]
Goyal V, Kadam V, Narang P, Singh V. Prevalence of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in India: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 817.
[] [PMID: 29041901]
Gupte AN, Kadam D, Sangle S, et al. Incidence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults on first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy in India. BMC Infect Dis 2019; 19(1): 914.
[] [PMID: 31664933]
Chawla K, Kumar A, Shenoy VP, Chauhan DS, Sharma P. Strain diversity and relative transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in south coastal Karnataka, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018; 22(8): 878-83.
[] [PMID: 29991396]
Prakash R, Gupta R, Sharma P, et al. Genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North-Central Indian population. Pathog Glob Health 2019; 113(1): 39-48.
[] [PMID: 30821646]
Chatterjee A, D’Souza D, Vira T, et al. Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from western Maharashtra, India, exhibit a high degree of diversity and strain-specific associations with drug resistance, cavitary disease, and treatment failure. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(10): 3593-9.
[] [PMID: 20720028]
Singh UB, Suresh N, Bhanu NV, et al. Predominant tuberculosis spoligotypes, Delhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10(6): 1138-42.
[] [PMID: 15207071]
Devi KR, Bhutia R, Bhowmick S, Mukherjee K, Mahanta J, Narain K. Genetic diversity of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and discovery of two new clades related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI family based on spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. PLoS One 2015; 10(12): e0145860.
[] [PMID: 26701129]
Singh J, Sankar MM, Kumar P, et al. Genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from different regions of India. J Infect 2015; 71(2): 207-19.
[] [PMID: 25934327]
Singh M, Mynak ML, Kumar L, Mathew JL, Jindal SK. Prevalence and risk factors for transmission of infection among children in household contact with adults having pulmonary tuberculosis. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90(6): 624-8.
[] [PMID: 15908630]
Radhakrishna S, Frieden TR, Subramani R, Santha T, Narayanan PR. Additional risk of developing TB for household members with a TB case at home at intake: A 15-year study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007; 11(3): 282-8.
[PMID: 17352093]
Dhingra VK, Rajpal S, Aggarwal N, Taneja DK. Tuberculosis trend among household contacts of TB Community patients. Indian J Med 2004; 29(1): 44-8.
Etkind SC. Contact tracing in tuberculosis. Lung Biol Health Disease 1993; 66: 275-89.
Menzies D. Issues in the management of contacts of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Can J Public Health 1997; 88(3): 197-201.
[] [PMID: 9260361]
Schilling W. Epidemiology and surveillance of tuberculosis in the German Democratic Republic. Bull Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis 1990; 65(2-3): 40-2.
[PMID: 2257355]
Andrews RH, Devadatta S, Fox W, Radhakrishna S, Ramakrishnan CV, Velu S. Prevalence of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India, and influence of segregation of the patient on early attack rate. Bull World Health Organ 1960; 23(4-5): 463-510.
[PMID: 13683486]
Devadatta S, Dawson JJY, Fox W, et al. Attack rate of tuberculosis in a 5-year period among close family contacts of tuberculous patients under domiciliary treatment with isoniazid plus PAS or isoniazid alone. Bull World Health Organ 1970; 42(3): 337-51.
[PMID: 5310206]
Morrison J, Pai M, Hopewell PC. Tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection in close contacts of people with pulmonary tuberculosis in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2008; 8(6): 359-68.
[] [PMID: 18450516]
Kenyon TA, Valway SE, Ihle WW, Onorato IM, Castro KG. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight. N Engl J Med 1996; 334(15): 933-8.
[] [PMID: 8596593]
Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, et al. The growing burden of tuberculosis: Global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163(9): 1009-21.
[] [PMID: 12742798]
Corbett EL, Marston B, Churchyard GJ, De Cock KM. Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment. Lancet 2006; 367(9514): 926-37.
[] [PMID: 16546541]
Swaminathan S, Nagendran G. HIV and tuberculosis in India. J Biosci 2008; 33(4): 527-37.
[] [PMID: 19208978]
Collins KR, Quiñones-Mateu ME, Toossi Z, Arts EJ. Impact of tuberculosis on HIV-1 replication, diversity, and disease progression. AIDS Rev 2002; 4(3): 165-76.
[PMID: 12416451]
Cegielski JP, McMurray DN. The relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis: Evidence from studies in humans and experimental animals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8(3): 286-98.
[PMID: 15139466]
Lönnroth K, Williams BG, Cegielski P, Dye C. A consistent log-linear relationship between tuberculosis incidence and body mass index. Int J Epidemiol 2010; 39(1): 149-55.
[] [PMID: 19820104]
Chandra RK. Nutrition and the immune system: An introduction. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66(2): 460S-3S.
[] [PMID: 9250133]
Cegielski JP, Kohlmeier L, Cornoni-Huntley J. Malnutrition and tuberculosis in a nationally representative cohort of adults in the United States, 1971-1987. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995.
Cruz AT, Starke JR. Clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 2007; 8(2): 107-17.
[] [PMID: 17574154]
Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams BG, Dye C, Raviglione M. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: The role of risk factors and social determinants. Soc Sci Med 2009; 68(12): 2240-6.
[] [PMID: 19394122]
Bates MN, Khalakdina A, Pai M, Chang L, Lessa F, Smith KR. Risk of tuberculosis from exposure to tobacco smoke: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(4): 335-42.
[] [PMID: 17325294]
Pai M, Mohan A, Dheda K, et al. Lethal interaction: The colliding epidemics of tobacco and tuberculosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2007; 5(3): 385-91.
[] [PMID: 17547503]
Slama K, Chiang CY, Enarson DA, et al. Tobacco and tuberculosis: A qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007; 11(10): 1049-61.
[PMID: 17945060]
Maurya V, Vijayan VK, Shah A. Smoking and tuberculosis: An association overlooked. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2002; 6(11): 942-51.
[PMID: 12475139]
Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164(20): 2206-16.
[] [PMID: 15534156]
Amere GA, Nayak P, Salindri AD, Narayan KMV, Magee MJ. Contribution of smoking to tuberculosis incidence and mortality in high-tuberculosis-burden countries. Am J Epidemiol 2018; 187(9): 1846-55.
[] [PMID: 29635332]
Venketaraman V. Understanding the Host Immune Response Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. In: Springer. 2018.
Shang S, Ordway D, Henao-Tamayo M, et al. Cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to tuberculosis--evidence from in vivo and in vitro models. J Infect Dis 2011; 203(9): 1240-8.
[] [PMID: 21357942]
Lönnroth K, Williams BG, Stadlin S, Jaramillo E, Dye C. Alcohol use as a risk factor for tuberculosis - a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2008; 8(1): 289.
[] [PMID: 18702821]
Szabo G. Alcohol’s contribution to compromised immunity. Alcohol Health Res World 1997; 21(1): 30-41.
[PMID: 15706761]
Kolappan C, Subramani R. Association between biomass fuel and pulmonary tuberculosis: A nested case-control study. Thorax 2009; 64(8): 705-8.
[] [PMID: 19359267]
Diaz JV, Koff J, Gotway MB, Nishimura S, Balmes JR. Case report: A case of wood-smoke-related pulmonary disease. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(5): 759-62.
[] [PMID: 16675433]
Zelikoff JT, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Schlesinger RB. The toxicology of inhaled woodsmoke. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2002; 5(3): 269-82.
[] [PMID: 12162869]
Fick RB Jr, Paul ES, Merrill WW, Reynolds HY, Loke JS. Alterations in the antibacterial properties of rabbit pulmonary macrophages exposed to wood smoke. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 129(1): 76-81.
[PMID: 6422813]
Menzies NA, Bellerose M, Testa C, et al. Impact of effective global tuberculosis control on health and economic outcomes in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 202(11): 1567-75.
[] [PMID: 32645277]
Dwivedi M. Exploration of ion channels in mycobacterium tuberculosis: Implication on drug discovery and potent drug targets against tuberculosis. Curr Chem Biol 2020; 14(1): 14-29.
Ahsan MJ. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for tuberculosis. Ther Adv Vaccines 2015; 3(3): 66-75.
[] [PMID: 26288734]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy