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Current Bioactive Compounds


ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Review Article

Metrology and Nanometrology at Agricultural/Food/Nutraceutical Interface: An Updated Shot

Author(s): Aleksandra Zielińska, Beatriz Santos, Margarida Silva, Christophe Fernandes, A. R. Silva, Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Piotr Eder, Antonello Santini* and Eliana B. Souto*

Volume 19, Issue 3, 2023

Published on: 18 October, 2022

Article ID: e240522205171 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1573407218666220524114244

Price: $65


Nanometrology has been considered a key to the future of nanotechnology recently. It is particularly important for nanoparticle market development that is commonly applied in different areas of science. The adoption of nanotechnologies in food and agrochemical industries represents a new frontier, with particular regard to plant defence against pathogen agents. Nanometrology deals with a broad range of measurements, as well as chemical and structural characterization, electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, fabrication and monitoring of nanodevices, and theoretical modelling of nanomaterials properties. Besides the scientific and technological values of a global standard offered by nanometrology, there are also several industry-related values. In this paper, the most common areas of science emphasized the most frequently applied methods by the example of techniques/tools that have been described from a metrological standpoint at a nanosize scale. Therefore, at the microscopic scale may be widely applied: optical techniques, for example, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), or optical transmission. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) can be used for microscopic characterization, while Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), consisting of Scanning- Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), as well as Transmission- Electron Microscopy (TEM), can be employed at the nanoscopic scale. The review has also mentioned Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) to analyze secondary ions using a mass spectrometer. In addition, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) using high-energy electrons from sample penetration or Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to obtain the infrared spectrum of a sample were also presented. Particle size analysis can be analyzed by performing Small-/Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques. A specific metrology approach is required for most nanoparticle-based products; that is, the way nanometrology is significant for production quality control and for toxicology studies. This review gives an update on the metrological approaches and applications, with particular attention to nanometrology for different areas of scientific research, i.e., food, agricultural, nutraceutical, biological and medical ones. The novelty character of this paper is to discuss the application of nanotechnologies under metrological principles and approaches at the interface of different integrated, multipurpose and multidisciplinary application fields. The following topics are explored here: i) metrology: definitions, principles, and main features; ii) calibration methods and techniques; iii) measurement methods and systems; iv) proficiency testing; v) nanometrology. Particularly, nanometrology was highlighted in the following directions: significance of the nanodimension, nanometrology in chemical research, nanometrology for the characterization of nanoparticles, nanometrology in biological and medical sciences, mechanical nanometrology, electrical nanometrology and applications of nanometrology in agriculture and food industry.

Keywords: Metrological approach, nanometrological applications, microscopy, nanodevices, nanomaterials properties, nanoscopic scale and applications.

Graphical Abstract
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