Generic placeholder image

Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Systematic Review Article

Sex-Related Differences Linked to Depression Disorders and Chronic Inflammation Diseases in Nursing Shift Workers: An Expsloratory Multidimensional Literature Review

Author(s): Calabrò Antonino, Elsa Vitale* and Lorenzo Bardone

Volume 22, Issue 13, 2022

Published on: 03 October, 2022

Page: [1293 - 1302] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1871530322666220620101323

Price: $65


Objective: The objective of this literature review is to explore how depression and inflammatory conditions relate to gender among nurses working shifts.

Methods: Relevant studies available on the PubMed database over the past decade were consulted. The main keywords were: “shift nurses”, “depression”, “gender Shift Nurses”, “Gender Role”, “shift nurse”, “gender roles”, “Inflammation” and then, free terms were combined with the Boolean AND operator. Inclusion and exclusion criteria had been formerly identified, and then, all the selected studies were assessed according to the following criteria, good description, and appropriateness of study design (objective and method), sample (sufficiently numerous, clarity of treatment allocation criteria, absence of important bias), intervention, outcomes, statistical analysis, and clinical relevance.

Results: 61 titles concerning research on inflammation were found. 28 titles were not taken into account as doubles whilst 33 were selected by title and abstract; in addition, 28 were discarded because they were not relevant to the objective or because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Out of the remaining 5, a further 2 were also discarded upon a careful analysis of the whole text: they did not prove relevant to the research question. As for the research related to depression, the research strategy highlighted 186 articles in the first place and then eliminated 165 of them either because they were duplicates or on the grounds that they did not answer the research questions; 21 texts were thoroughly analyzed and, after a careful read, 4 studies were eventually incorporated in this review.

Conclusion: Since data available in the literature were inconsistent, it was difficult to establish that all depression conditions could be associated with an increase in inflammation and vice versa and that this condition was strictly connected to the female gender.

Keywords: Depression, inflammation, sex, shift nurses, gender role, nursing, medicine, rheumatologically diseases.

Graphical Abstract
Baggio, G.; Corsini, A.; Floreani, A.; Giannini, S.; Zagonel, V. Gender medicine: A task for the third millennium. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 2013, 51(4), 713-727.
[] [PMID: 23515103]
Drew, E.; Bencivenga, R.; Ratzer, B.; Poggio, B.; Sağlamer, G. Gender in Horizon 2020. The case of gender equality plans. AG About Gender – Rivista internazionale di studi di genere. 2018, 6(12), 326-355.
Salmi, M. Gender-specific medicine: It’s the law in Italy. Ital. J. Gend. Specif. Med., 2017, 3, 89-91.
Galizzi, G.; Siboni, B. Positive action plans in Italian universities: Does gender really matter? Meditari Accountancy Res., 2016, 24(2), 246-268.
Plan for the application and dissemination of gender medicine. 2019. Available from: dettaglioPubblicazioniDonna.jsp?id=2860
Copertaro, A. Shift and Night Work. Risk Assessment and Health Surveillance; BookSprint Edizioni: Buccino, Italy, 2013.
Davila, E.P.; Florez, H.; Fleming, L.E.; Lee, D.J.; Goodman, E.; LeBlanc, W.G.; Caban-Martinez, A.J.; Arheart, K.L.; McCollister, K.E.; Christ, S.L.; Clark, J.C., III; Clarke, T. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. workers. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33(11), 2390-2395.
[] [PMID: 20585004]
Gu, F.; Han, J.; Laden, F.; Pan, A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Stampfer, M.J.; Kawachi, I.; Rexrode, K.M.; Willett, W.C.; Hankinson, S.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Schernhammer, E.S. Total and cause-specific mortality of U.S. nurses working rotating night shifts. Am. J. Prev. Med., 2015, 48(3), 241-252.
[] [PMID: 25576495]
Karlsson, B.; Alfredsson, L.; Knutsson, A.; Andersson, E.; Torén, K. Total mortality and cause-specific mortality of Swedish shift-and dayworkers in the pulp and paper industry in 1952-2001. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 2005, 31(1), 30-35.
[] [PMID: 15751616]
Morrissette, D.A. Twisting the night away: A review of the neurobiology, genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of shift work disorder. CNS Spectr., 2013, 18(Suppl. 1), 45-53.
[] [PMID: 24345709]
Cain, S.W.; Filtness, A.J.; Phillips, C.L.; Anderson, C. Enhanced preference for high-fat foods following a simulated night shift. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 2015, 41(3), 288-293.
[] [PMID: 25699635]
Depner, C.M.; Stothard, E.R.; Wright, K.P., Jr Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders. Curr. Diab. Rep., 2014, 14(7), 507.
[] [PMID: 24816752]
Kang, M.Y.; Kwon, H.J.; Choi, K.H.; Kang, C.W.; Kim, H. The relationship between shift work and mental health among electronics workers in South Korea: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2017, 12(11), e0188019.
[] [PMID: 29145440]
Booker, L.A.; Sletten, T.L.; Alvaro, P.K.; Barnes, M.; Collins, A.; Chai-Coetzer, C.L.; Naqvi, A.; McMahon, M.; Lockley, S.W.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Howard, M.E. Exploring the associations between shift work disorder, depression, anxiety and sick leave taken amongst nurses. J. Sleep Res., 2020, 29(3), e12872.
[] [PMID: 31144389]
Walker, W.H., II; Walton, J.C.; DeVries, A.C.; Nelson, R.J. Circadian rhythm disruption and mental health. Transl. Psychiatry, 2020, 10(1), 28.
[] [PMID: 32066704]
Korompeli, A.; Chara, T.; Chrysoula, L.; Sourtzi, P. Sleep disturbance in nursing personnel working shifts. Nurs. Forum, 2013, 48(1), 45-53.
[] [PMID: 23379395]
La Sala, M.; Pietroiusti, A.; Magrini, A.; De Santis, L.; Babbucci, A.; Bergamaschi, A. Metabolic syndrome and work: identification of populations at risk. G. Ital. Med. Lav. Ergon., 2007, 29, 445-447.
Pietroiusti, A.; Neri, A.; Somma, G.; Coppeta, L.; Iavicoli, I.; Bergamaschi, A.; Magrini, A. Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers. Occup. Environ. Med., 2010, 67(1), 54-57.
[] [PMID: 19737731]
Chan, M.F. Factors associated with perceived sleep quality of nurses working on rotating shifts. J. Clin. Nurs., 2009, 18(2), 285-293.
[] [PMID: 19120755]
Costa, G. Shift work and health: Current problems and preventive actions. Saf. Health Work, 2010, 1(2), 112-123.
[] [PMID: 22953171]
World Health Organization. 2008. Available from:
Kessler, R.C.; Bromet, E.J. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 2013, 34(1), 119-138.
[] [PMID: 23514317]
Kuehner, C. Why is depression more common among women than among men? Lancet Psych., 2017, 4(2), 146-158.
[] [PMID: 27856392]
Perez-Caballero, L.; Torres-Sanchez, S.; Romero-López-Alberca, C.; González-Saiz, F.; Mico, J.A.; Berrocoso, E. Monoaminergic system and depression. Cell Tissue Res., 2019, 377(1), 107-113.
[] [PMID: 30627806]
Maes, M.; Yirmyia, R.; Noraberg, J.; Brene, S.; Hibbeln, J.; Perini, G.; Kubera, M.; Bob, P.; Lerer, B.; Maj, M. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: Leads for future research and new drug developments in depression. Metab. Brain Dis., 2009, 24(1), 27-53.
[] [PMID: 19085093]
Keller, J.; Gomez, R.; Williams, G.; Lembke, A.; Lazzeroni, L.; Murphy, G.M., Jr; Schatzberg, A.F. HPA axis in major depression: Cortisol, clinical symptomatology and genetic variation predict cognition. Mol. Psychiatry, 2017, 22(4), 527-536.
[] [PMID: 27528460]
Czarny, P.; Wigner, P.; Galecki, P.; Sliwinski, T. The interplay between inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, DNA repair and mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2018, 80(Pt C), 309-321.
[] [PMID: 28669580]
Gałecki, P.; Talarowska, M. Neurodevelopmental theory of depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2018, 80(Pt C), 267-272.
[] [PMID: 28571776]
Uchida, S.; Yamagata, H.; Seki, T.; Watanabe, Y. Epigenetic mechanisms of major depression: Targeting neuronal plasticity. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2018, 72(4), 212-227.
[] [PMID: 29154458]
Halaris, A. Inflammation-associated co-morbidity between depression and cardiovascular disease. Curr. Top. Behav. Neurosci., 2017, 31, 45-70.
[] [PMID: 27830572]
Goldsmith, D.R.; Rapaport, M.H.; Miller, B.J. A meta-analysis of blood cytokine network alterations in psychiatric patients: Comparisons between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Mol. Psychiatry, 2016, 21(12), 1696-1709.
[] [PMID: 26903267]
Nobis, A.; Zalewski, D.; Waszkiewicz, N. Peripheral markers of depression. J. Clin. Med., 2020, 9(12), 3793.
[] [PMID: 33255237]
Osimo, E.F.; Pillinger, T.; Rodriguez, I.M.; Khandaker, G.M.; Pariante, C.M.; Howes, O.D. Inflammatory markers in depression: A meta-analysis of mean differences and variability in 5,166 patients and 5,083 controls. Brain Behav. Immun., 2020, 87, 901-909.
[] [PMID: 32113908]
Siegmann, E.M.; Müller, H.H.O.; Luecke, C.; Philipsen, A.; Kornhuber, J.; Grömer, T.W. Association of depression and anxiety disorders with autoimmune thyroiditis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 2018, 75(6), 577-584.
[] [PMID: 29800939]
González-Parra, S.; Daudén, E. Psoriasis and depression: the role of inflammation. Actas Dermosifiliogr., 2019, 110(1), 12-19.
Yang, L.L.; Stiernborg, M.; Skott, E.; Söderström, Å.; Giacobini, M.; Lavebratt, C. Proinflammatory mediators and their associations with medication and comorbid traits in children and adults with ADHD. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2020, 41, 118-131.
[] [PMID: 33160793]
Ridker, P.M. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation, 2003, 107(3), 363-369.
[] [PMID: 12551853]
Benros, M.E.; Pedersen, M.G.; Rasmussen, H.; Eaton, W.W.; Nordentoft, M.; Mortensen, P.B. A nationwide study on the risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals with a personal or a family history of schizophrenia and related psychosis. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2014, 171(2), 218-226.
[] [PMID: 24129899]
Gałecki, P.; Talarowska, M. Inflammatory theory of depression. Psychiatr. Pol., 2018, 52(3), 437-447.
[] [PMID: 30218560]
Menard, C.; Pfau, M.L.; Hodes, G.E.; Kana, V.; Wang, V.X.; Bouchard, S.; Takahashi, A.; Flanigan, M.E.; Aleyasin, H.; LeClair, K.B.; Janssen, W.G.; Labonté, B.; Parise, E.M.; Lorsch, Z.S.; Golden, S.A.; Heshmati, M.; Tamminga, C.; Turecki, G.; Campbell, M.; Fayad, Z.A.; Tang, C.Y.; Merad, M.; Russo, S.J. Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression. Nat. Neurosci., 2017, 20(12), 1752-1760.
[] [PMID: 29184215]
Horn, S.R.; Long, M.M.; Nelson, B.W.; Allen, N.B.; Fisher, P.A.; Byrne, M.L. Replication and reproducibility issues in the relationship between C-reactive protein and depression: A systematic review and focused meta-analysis. Brain Behav. Immun., 2018, 73, 85-114.
[] [PMID: 29928963]
Pariante, C.M. Chronic fatigue syndrome and the immune system: “findings in search of meanings”. Brain Behav. Immun., 2009, 23(3), 325-326.
[] [PMID: 19251161]
Brown, D. A review of the PubMed PICO tool: Using evidence-based practice in health education. Health Promot. Pract., 2020, 21(4), 496-498.
[] [PMID: 31874567]
Moher, D.; Liberati, A.; Tetzlaff, J.; Altman, D.G. PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med., 2009, 6(7), e1000097.
[] [PMID: 19621072]
Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Nursing. Ward Rounds in Medicine: Principles for Best Practice; RCP: London, 2012.
Øyane, N.M.; Pallesen, S.; Moen, B.E.; Akerstedt, T.; Bjorvatn, B. Associations between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue in a sample of Norwegian nurses. PLoS One, 2013, 8(8), e70228.
[] [PMID: 23950914]
Abolfotouh, S.M.; Mahmoud, K.; Faraj, K.; Moammer, G.; ElSayed, A.; Abolfotouh, M.A. Prevalence, consequences and predictors of low back pain among nurses in a tertiary care setting. Int. Orthop., 2015, 39(12), 2439-2449.
[] [PMID: 26189128]
Vahedian-Azimi, A.; Hajiesmaeili, M.; Kangasniemi, M.; Fornés-Vives, J.; Hunsucker, R.L.; Rahimibashar, F.; Pourhoseingholi, M.A.; Farrokhvar, L.; Miller, A.C. Effects of stress on critical care nurses: A national cross-sectional study. J. Intensive Care Med., 2019, 34(4), 311-322.
[] [PMID: 29277137]
De la Fuente-Solana, E.I.; Suleiman-Martos, N.; Velando-Soriano, A.; Cañadas-De la Fuente, G.R.; Herrera-Cabrerizo, B.; Albendín-García, L. Predictors of burnout of health professionals in the departments of maternity and gynaecology, and its association with personality factors: A multicentre study. J. Clin. Nurs., 2021, 30(1-2), 207-216.
[] [PMID: 33090612]
Bjorvatn, B.; Axelsson, J.; Pallesen, S.; Waage, S.; Vedaa, Ø.; Blytt, K.M.; Buchvold, H.V.; Moen, B.E.; Thun, E. The association between shift work and immunological biomarkers in nurses. Front. Public Health, 2020, 8, 415.
[] [PMID: 33042933]
Slavish, D.C.; Taylor, D.J.; Dietch, J.R.; Wardle-Pinkston, S.; Messman, B.; Ruggero, C.J.; Kohut, M.; Kelly, K. Intraindividual variability in sleep and levels of systemic inflammation in nurses. Psychosom. Med., 2020, 82(7), 678-688.
[] [PMID: 32697443]
Søbstad, J.H.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Costa, G.; Hystad, S.W. Predictors of turnover intention among Norwegian nurses: A cohort study. Health Care Manage. Rev., 2020.
[PMID: 32109924]
Irwin, M.R.; Olmstead, R.; Carroll, J.E. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation. Biol. Psychiatry, 2016, 80(1), 40-52.
[] [PMID: 26140821]
Puttonen, S.; Viitasalo, K.; Härmä, M. Effect of shiftwork on systemic markers of inflammation. Chronobiol. Int., 2011, 28(6), 528-535.
[] [PMID: 21797781]
Reinhardt, É.L.; Fernandes, P.A.C.M.; Markus, R.P.; Fischer, F.M. Night work effects on salivary cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. Chronobiol. Int., 2019, 36(1), 11-26.
[] [PMID: 30230913]
Sookoian, S.; Gemma, C.; Fernández Gianotti, T.; Burgueño, A.; Alvarez, A.; González, C.D.; Pirola, C.J. Effects of rotating shift work on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. J. Intern. Med., 2007, 261(3), 285-292.
[] [PMID: 17305651]
Pai, J.K.; Pischon, T.; Ma, J.; Manson, J.E.; Hankinson, S.E.; Joshipura, K.; Curhan, G.C.; Rifai, N.; Cannuscio, C.C.; Stampfer, M.J.; Rimm, E.B. Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 351(25), 2599-2610.
[] [PMID: 15602020]
Patel, S.R.; Hayes, A.L.; Blackwell, T.; Evans, D.S.; Ancoli-Israel, S.; Wing, Y.K.; Stone, K.L. Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), study of osteoporotic fractures (SOF) research groups, 2014. The association between sleep patterns and obesity in older adults. Int. J. Obes., 2014, 38(9), 1159-1164.
Brandford, A.A.; Reed, D.B. Depression in registered nurses: A state of the science. Workplace Health Saf., 2016, 64(10), 488-511.
[] [PMID: 30209987]
Bronder, E.C.; Speight, K.M.; Witherspoon, K.M.; Thomas, A.J. John Henryism, depression, and perceived social support in Black women. J. Black Psychol., 2014, 40(2), 115-137.
Williams, D.R.; González, H.M.; Neighbors, H.; Nesse, R.; Abelson, J.M.; Sweetman, J.; Jackson, J.S. Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites: Results from the national survey of American life. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2007, 64(3), 305-315.
[] [PMID: 17339519]
Moghaddam, H.Y.; Manzari, Z.S.; Heydari, A.; Mohammadi, E. Explaining nurses’ experiences of caring for brain dead patients: A content analysis. Electron. Physician, 2018, 10(8), 7205-7216.
[] [PMID: 30214703]
Stubbs, D.A.; Buckle, P.W.; Hudson, M.P.; Rivers, P.M.; Baty, D. Backing out: Nurse wastage associated with back pain. Int. J. Nurs. Stud., 1986, 23(4), 325-336.
[] [PMID: 2946647]
Bejia, I.; Younes, M.; Jamila, H.B.; Khalfallah, T.; Ben Salem, K.; Touzi, M.; Akrout, M.; Bergaoui, N. Prevalence and factors associated to low back pain among hospital staff. Joint Bone Spine, 2005, 72(3), 254-259.
[] [PMID: 15850998]
Attar, S.M. Frequency and risk factors of musculoskeletal pain in nurses at a tertiary centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional study. BMC Res. Notes, 2014, 7(1), 61.
[] [PMID: 24460669]
Karahan, A.; Kav, S.; Abbasoglu, A.; Dogan, N. Low back pain: Prevalence and associated risk factors among hospital staff. J. Adv. Nurs., 2009, 65(3), 516-524.
[] [PMID: 19222649]
Ang, S.Y.; Dhaliwal, S.S.; Ayre, T.C.; Uthaman, T.; Fong, K.Y.; Tien, C.E.; Zhou, H.; Della, P. Demographics and personality factors associated with burnout among nurses in a Singapore tertiary hospital. BioMed Res. Int., 2016, 2016, 6960184.
[] [PMID: 27478835]
Xian, M.; Zhai, H.; Xiong, Y.; Han, Y. The role of work resources between job demands and burnout in male nurses. J. Clin. Nurs., 2020, 29(3-4), 535-544.
[] [PMID: 31737968]
Vitale, E.; Galatola, V.; Mea, R. Exploring within and between gender differences in burnout levels in Italian nurses engaged in the Covid-19 health emergency: A cohort observational study. Minerva Psichiatr., 2020, 61(4), 162-170.
Poghosyan, L.; Liu, J.; Shang, J.; D’Aunno, T. Practice environments and job satisfaction and turnover intentions of nurse practitioners: Implications for primary care workforce capacity. Health Care Manage. Rev., 2017, 42(2), 162-171.
[] [PMID: 26587998]
Borkowski, N.; Amann, R.; Song, S-H.; Weiss, C. Nurses’ intent to leave the profession: Issues related to gender, ethnicity, and educational level. Health Care Manage. Rev., 2007, 32(2), 160-167.
[] [PMID: 17438399]
Suzuki, E.; Tagaya, A.; Ota, K.; Nagasawa, Y.; Matsuura, R.; Sato, C. Factors affecting turnover of Japanese novice nurses in university hospitals in early and later periods of employment. J. Nurs. Manag., 2010, 18(2), 194-204.
[] [PMID: 20465747]
Bowling, N.A.; Beehr, T.A.; Wagner, S.H.; Libkuman, T.M. Adaptation-level theory, opponent process theory, and dispositions: An integrated approach to the stability of job satisfaction. J. Appl. Psychol., 2005, 90(6), 1044-1053.
[] [PMID: 16316264]
Vitale, E.; Galatola, V.; Mea, R. Observational study on the potential psychological factors that affected Italian nurses involved in the COVID-19 health emergency. Acta Biomed., 2021, 92(S2), e2021007.
[PMID: 33855977]
Vitale, E.; Galatola, V.; Mea, R.; Dio, F.D.; Canonico, A. The linkage “Body Mass Index-Insomnia Levels-Eating Disorder Flexibility” in Italian nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak: A psychoendocrinological employment disease. Endocr. Metab. Immune Disord. Drug Targets, 2022, 22(5), 490-501.
[PMID: 34269670]
Vitale, E.; Mea, R.; Di Dio, F.; Canonico, A.; Galatola, V. Anxiety, insomnia and body mass index scores in Italian nurses engaged in the care of COVID-19 patients. Endocr. Metab. Immune Disord. Drug Targets, 2021, 21(9), 1604-1612.
[] [PMID: 33069203]
Vitale, E.; Casolaro, S. Anxiety, burnout and depression levels according to sex and years of work experience in Italian nurses engaged in the care of COVID-19 patients. J. Evid. Based Psychother., 2021, 21(1), 83-96.
Ohler, M.C.; Kerr, M.S.; Forbes, D.A. Depression in nurses. Can. J. Nurs. Res., 2010, 42(3), 66-82.
Lee, S.; Oh, S.S.; Jang, S.I.; Park, E.C. Sex difference in the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and depression: The 2016 Korea National Health and nutrition examination survey. Sci. Rep., 2019, 9(1), 1918.
[] [PMID: 30760746]
Song, B.M.; Lee, J.M.; Choi, W.; Youm, Y.; Chu, S.H.; Park, Y.R.; Kim, H.C. Association between C reactive protein level and depressive symptoms in an elderly Korean population: Korean social life, health and aging project. BMJ Open, 2015, 5(2), e006429.
[] [PMID: 25712819]
Chapman, A.; Santos-Lozada, A.R. Racial and ethnic differences in the associations between social integration, C-reactive protein and depressive symptoms. SSM Popul. Health, 2020, 12, 100663.
[] [PMID: 32995460]
Liukkonen, T.; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S.; Jokelainen, J.; Räsänen, P.; Leinonen, M.; Meyer-Rochow, V.B.; Timonen, M. The association between C-reactive protein levels and depression: Results from the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort study. Biol. Psychiatry, 2006, 60(8), 825-830.
[] [PMID: 16616729]
Mosadeghrad, A.M. Occupational stress and turnover intention: Implications for nursing management. Int. J. Health Policy Manag., 2013, 1(2), 169-176.
[] [PMID: 24596858]
Moola, S.; Ehlers, V.J.; Hattingh, S.P. Critical care nurses’ perceptions of stress and stress-related situations in the workplace. Curationis, 2008, 31(2), 77-86.
[] [PMID: 19006961]
Martins, J.T.; Robazzi, M.L. Nurses’ work in intensive care units: Feelings of suffering. Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, 2009, 17(1), 52-58.
[] [PMID: 19377807]
Parkes, K.R. Shiftwork, job type, and the work environment as joint predictors of health-related outcomes. J. Occup. Health Psychol., 1999, 4(3), 256-268.
[] [PMID: 10431285]
Skipper, J.K., Jr; Jung, F.D.; Coffey, L.C. Nurses and shiftwork: Effects on physical health and mental depression. J. Adv. Nurs., 1990, 15(7), 835-842.
[] [PMID: 2394892]
Costa, G. Shift work and occupational medicine: An overview. Occup. Med. (Lond.), 2003, 53(2), 83-88.
[] [PMID: 12637591]
Bara, A.C.; Arber, S. Working shifts and mental health-findings from the British Household Panel Survey (1995-2005). Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 2009, 35(5), 361-367.
[] [PMID: 19688143]
Angerer, P.; Schmook, R.; Elfantel, I.; Li, J. Night work and the risk of depression. Dtsch. Arztebl. Int., 2017, 114(24), 404-411.
[] [PMID: 28669378]
Himmerich, H.; Patsalos, O.; Lichtblau, N.; Ibrahim, M.A.A.; Dalton, B. Cytokine research in depression: Principles, challenges, and open questions. Front. Psychiatry, 2019, 10, 30.
[] [PMID: 30792669]
Frick, L.R.; Williams, K.; Pittenger, C. Microglial dysregulation in psychiatric disease. Clin. Dev. Immunol., 2013, 2013, 608654.
[] [PMID: 23690824]
Maeng, S.H.; Hong, H. Inflammation as the potential basis in depression. Int. Neurourol. J., 2019, 23(Suppl. 2), S63-S71.
[] [PMID: 31795605]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy