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Current Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

The Role of miRNAs in Metabolic Diseases

Author(s): Mirjana Macvanin*, Milan Obradovic, Sonja Zafirovic, Julijana Stanimirovic and Esma R. Isenovic

Volume 30, Issue 17, 2023

Published on: 07 October, 2022

Page: [1922 - 1944] Pages: 23

DOI: 10.2174/0929867329666220801161536

Price: $65

Abstract

Metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are characterized by glucose and lipid metabolism alterations and represent a global health problem. Many studies have established the crucial role of micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) in controlling metabolic processes in various tissues. miRNAs are single- stranded, highly conserved non-coding RNAs containing 20-24 oligonucleotides that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. miRNAs mainly interact through base pairing with 3' untranslated regions of target gene mRNAs to promote inhibition of their translation. miRNAs regulate the expression of as many as 30% of the human genes and have a role in crucial physiological processes such as human growth and development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. The number of miRNA molecules with a confirmed role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases is quickly expanding due to the availability of high-throughput methodologies for their identification. In this review, we present recent findings regarding the role of miRNAs as endocrine signaling molecules involved in the regulation of insulin production and fat metabolism. We discuss the potential of extracellular miRNAs present in biological fluids miRNAs as biomarkers for the prediction of diabetes and MetS. We also give an updated overview of therapeutic interventions based on antisense oligonucleotides and the CRISPR/Cas9 editing platform for manipulating levels of miRNAs involved in metabolic disorders.

Keywords: miRNAs, metabolic disease, insulin production, fat metabolism, biomarkers, antisense oligonucleotides, CRISPR/Cas9 editing.

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