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Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-8871
ISSN (Online): 1876-1038

General Research Article

Impact of Age and Gender Disparity on CD4+ Cell Counts to Control Disease Progression Using Specific HAART in HIV-1 Positive Patients: A Case-Control Study

Author(s): Aakansha Singh, Manoj Kumar, Ashok K. Singh and Neeraj Verma*

Volume 17, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 08 September, 2022

Page: [195 - 207] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1574887117666220817123002

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is composed of several drugs in the antiretroviral class to better treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load in plasma is required to evaluate the treatment success of a specific HAART.

Methodology: The study included the effects of NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and novel protease inhibitors (HAART) on normal control subjects and HIV-1 positive subjects from SGPGIMS, Lucknow, with different age groups and genders. Furthermore, the study was conducted by the estimation of HIV through ELISA, measurement of absolute CD4+ cell count, and the measurement of viral load through qRT-PCR. Furthermore, NRTIs (Retrovir and Epivir) were administered orally one tablet daily in the morning followed by newly FDA-approved protease inhibitors (fosamprenavir and darunavir) orally in the evening at the same dose. Furthermore, CD4+T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were investigated and correlated in patients with different genders and age groups.

Results: Administration of NRTIs and novel protease inhibitors (HAART) in HIV patients had a significant effect on the CD4+ cell count in various age intervals among males and females.

The mean comparison of viral load distribution based on gender in CD4 +ve patients in the case group exhibited a viral load higher in females compared to males, indicating a statistically significant difference between males and females (p<0.05). A notable association between virological and immunological parameters was observed with a reciprocal relationship between viral load and CD4 cell count in CD4 +ve patients, demonstrating multiple correlation coefficients with an R-value of 0.853.

Conclusion: The administration of specific HAART (NRTIs and novel protease inhibitors) in HIV patients had a notable improvement in the CD4+ cell count and viral load with significant age and gender disparity.

Keywords: CD4, CD8, HIV, ELISA, qRT-PCR, HAART.

Graphical Abstract
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