Generic placeholder image

Current Medical Imaging


ISSN (Print): 1573-4056
ISSN (Online): 1875-6603

Systematic Review Article

Activation of Brain Regions Associated with Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Systematic Review

Author(s): Lihao Hou, Jiaxuan Yang, Lin Xu, Juanjuan Peng, Cho Yin Joyce Law and Tianhao Chen*

Volume 19, Issue 8, 2023

Published on: 19 September, 2022

Article ID: e220822207834 Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573405618666220822101019



Introduction: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show abnormalities related to cognitive activities, especially related to working memory and inhibitory control. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique based on the changes in cerebral hemodynamics to measure the response of brain activities to cognitive tasks.

Methods: In this review, we collected all clinical experiments that evaluated the changes of oxyhemoglobin levels in relevant brain regions of patients with ADHD through cognitive tasks by fNIRS to determine the abnormalities of brain regions related to working memory and inhibitory control activities in patients with ADHD.

Results: From the beginning of November 2021, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, web of science and Cochrane library were searched, and ROBINS-I was a tool to evaluate the quality and risk bias of the articles included. Sixteen eligible clinical trials or randomized controlled trials were included, of which six measured working memory and eleven measured inhibitory control.

Conclusion: We found that compared with healthy people, the activation scope of working memory and inhibition control in the frontal cortex in ADHD patients was smaller than that in healthy people, and the activation degree was weak or even inactive, which can provide new ideas for the direction of research on ADHD.

Keywords: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, working memory, inhibitory control, ADHD, systematic review, brain regions.

Willcutt EG. The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics 2012; 9(3): 490-9.
[] [PMID: 22976615]
Boland RJ. DSM-5® guidebook: The essential companion to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth edition. J Psychiatric Pract 2015; 21(2): 21: 171.
Brook U, Boaz M. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): Adolescents perspective. Patient Educ Couns 2005; 58(2): 187-91.
[] [PMID: 16009295]
DuPaul GJ, Gormley MJ, Laracy SD. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD. J Learn Disabil 2013; 46(1): 43-51.
[] [PMID: 23144063]
Watts ME, Pocock R, Claudianos C. Brain energy and oxygen metabolism: Emerging role in normal function and disease. Front Mol Neurosci 2018; 11: 216.
[] [PMID: 29988368]
Girouard H, Iadecola C. Neurovascular coupling in the normal brain and in hypertension, stroke, and Alzheimer disease. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100(1): 328-35.
[] [PMID: 16357086]
Zimeo Morais GA, Balardin JB, Sato JR. fNIRS Optodes’ Location Decider (fOLD): A toolbox for probe arrangement guided by brain regions-of-interest. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 3341.
[] [PMID: 29463928]
Negoro H, Sawada M, Iida J, Ota T, Tanaka S, Kishimoto T. Prefrontal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2010; 41(2): 193-203.
[] [PMID: 19826946]
McDonald NM, Perdue KL. The infant brain in the social world: Moving toward interactive social neuroscience with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018; 87: 38-49.
[] [PMID: 29371139]
Quaresima V, Ferrari M. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) for assessing cerebral cortex function during human behavior in natural/social situations: A concise review. Organ Res Methods 2019; 22(1): 46-68.
Villringer A, Planck J, Hock C, Schleinkofer L, Dirnagl U. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): A new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults. Neurosci Lett 1993; 154(1-2): 101-4.
[] [PMID: 8361619]
Sato H, Kiguchi M, Kawaguchi F, Maki A. Practicality of wavelength selection to improve signal-to-noise ratio in near-infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage 2004; 21(4): 1554-62.
[] [PMID: 15050579]
Pfeifer MD, Scholkmann F, Labruyère R. Signal processing in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): Methodological differences lead to different statistical results. Front Hum Neurosci 2018; 11: 641.
[] [PMID: 29358912]
Baddeley A, Hitch G. Recent developments in working memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1998; 8(2): 234-8.
[] [PMID: 9635207]
Anderson MC, Bunce JG, Barbas H. Prefrontal–hippocampal pathways underlying inhibitory control over memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2016; 134(Pt A): 145-61.
[] [PMID: 26642918]
Castellanos FX, Tannock R. Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002; 3(8): 617-28.
[] [PMID: 12154363]
Martinussen R, Hayden J, Hogg-Johnson S, Tannock R. A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 44(4): 377-84.
[] [PMID: 15782085]
Guderjahn L, Gold A, Stadler G, Gawrilow C. Self-regulation strategies support children with ADHD to overcome symptom-related behavior in the classroom. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2013; 5(4): 397-407.
[] [PMID: 24062181]
Re AM, Capodieci A, Cornoldi C. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms. Front Psychol 2015; 6: 1161.
[] [PMID: 26300836]
Mograbi D, Faria CA, Fichman H, Paradela EP, Lourenço R. Relationship between activities of daily living and cognitive ability in a sample of older adults with heterogeneous educational level. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014; 17(1): 71-6.
[] [PMID: 24753664]
Gerton BK, Brown TT, Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al. Shared and distinct neurophysiological components of the digits forward and backward tasks as revealed by functional neuroimaging. Neuropsychologia 2004; 42(13): 1781-7.
[] [PMID: 15351627]
Kane MJ, Conway ARA, Miura TK, Colflesh GJH. Working memory, attention control, and the n-back task: A question of construct validity. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2007; 33(3): 615-22.
[] [PMID: 17470009]
Higo K, Minamoto T, Ikeda T, Osaka M. Robust order representation is required for backward recall in the Corsi blocks task. Front Psychol 2014; 5: 1285.
[] [PMID: 25426092]
Kim H, Lee YN, Jo EM, Lee EY. Reliability and validity of culturally adapted executive function performance test for Koreans with stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017; 26(5): 1033-40.
[] [PMID: 28110889]
Gomez P, Ratcliff R, Perea M. A model of the go/no-go task. J Exp Psychol Gen 2007; 136(3): 389-413.
[] [PMID: 17696690]
Mitchell RLC. Linear increases in BOLD response associated with increasing proportion of incongruent trials across time in a colour Stroop task. Exp Brain Res 2010; 203(1): 193-204.
[] [PMID: 20336280]
Sterne JAC, Hernán MA, Reeves BC, et al. ROBINS-I: A tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ 2016; 355: i4919.
[] [PMID: 27733354]
Ehlis AC, Bähne CG, Jacob CP, Herrmann MJ, Fallgatter AJ. Reduced lateral prefrontal activation in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during a working memory task: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study. J Psychiatr Res 2008; 42(13): 1060-7.
[] [PMID: 18226818]
Ishii S, Kaga Y, Tando T, et al. Disinhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Changes in [oxy-Hb] on near-infrared spectroscopy during “rock, paper, scissors” task. Brain Dev 2017; 39(5): 395-402.
[] [PMID: 28094161]
Monden Y, Dan I, Nagashima M, et al. Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS. Neuroimage Clin 2015; 9: 1-12.
[] [PMID: 26266096]
Schecklmann M, Romanos M, Bretscher F, Plichta MM, Warnke A, Fallgatter AJ. Prefrontal oxygenation during working memory in ADHD. J Psychiatr Res 2010; 44(10): 621-8.
[] [PMID: 20044098]
Tsujimoto S, Yasumura A, Yamashita Y, Torii M, Kaga M, Inagaki M. Increased prefrontal oxygenation related to distractor-resistant working memory in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2013; 44(5): 678-88.
[] [PMID: 23385518]
Bell L, Scharke W, Reindl V, Fels J, Neuschaefer-Rube C, Konrad K. Auditory and visual response inhibition in children with bilateral hearing aids and children with ADHD. Brain Sci 2020; 10(5): 307.
[] [PMID: 32443468]
Arai S, Okamoto Y, Fujioka T, et al. Altered frontal pole development affects self-generated spatial working memory in ADHD. Brain Dev 2016; 38(5): 471-80.
[] [PMID: 26709204]
Jourdan Moser S, Cutini S, Weber P, Schroeter ML. Right prefrontal brain activation due to Stroop interference is altered in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder — A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2009; 173(3): 190-5.
[] [PMID: 19664910]
Schecklmann M, Ehlis AC, Plichta MM, et al. Working memory and response inhibition as one integral phenotype of adult ADHD? A behavioral and imaging correlational investigation. J Atten Disord 2013; 17(6): 470-82.
[] [PMID: 22323120]
Sutoko S, Monden Y, Tokuda T, et al. Atypical dynamic-connectivity recruitment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children: An insight into task-based dynamic connectivity through an fNIRS study. Front Hum Neurosci 2020; 14: 3.
[] [PMID: 32082132]
Gu Y, Miao S, Han J, et al. Complexity analysis of fNIRS signals in ADHD children during working memory task. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 829.
[] [PMID: 28400568]
Inoue Y, Sakihara K, Gunji A, et al. Reduced prefrontal hemodynamic response in children with ADHD during the Go/NoGo task. Neuroreport 2012; 23(2): 55-60.
[] [PMID: 22146580]
Miao S, Han J, Gu Y, et al. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during Go/No-Go task: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Front Neurosci 2017; 11: 367.
[] [PMID: 28701914]
Xiao T, Xiao Z, Ke X, et al. Response inhibition impairment in high functioning autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from near-infrared spectroscopy data. PLoS One 2012; 7(10): e46569.
[] [PMID: 23056348]
Serap S, Tapsin M, Akin A. Investigating brain hemodynamics of ADHD patients by functional near infrared spectroscopy. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009; 2009: 3028-30.
[] [PMID: 19964053]
Cui X, Bray S, Reiss AL. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics. Neuroimage 2010; 49(4): 3039-46.
[] [PMID: 19945536]
Yeung MK, Chan AS. A systematic review of the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to the study of cerebral hemodynamics in healthy aging. Neuropsychol Rev 2021; 31(1): 139-66.
[] [PMID: 32959167]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy