Generic placeholder image

Current Pediatric Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3963
ISSN (Online): 1875-6336


Elimination, Containment, and Mitigation of COVID-19: A Personal Story about International Travels

Author(s): Kum L. Hon* and Karen K.Y. Leung

Volume 19, Issue 3, 2023

Published on: 13 September, 2022

Page: [218 - 222] Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1573396318666220823152942


Background: The author and his wife report their unique experience of international travels during the COVID-19 pandemic, and discuss issues encountered in various countries.

Methods: Narrated discussion of issues encountered during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion: “Zero-COVID” versus “Living with COVID-19” strategies are compared. Children have unique issues with COVID-19 pandemic. Evaluation of efficacy of the approaches in pandemic with time should consider the main types of interventions (e.g., border management/quarantine; physical distancing; mask use; case isolation, testing and contact tracing; vaccination). The key metrics that can be used to compare the impacts of different strategies between the cities (e.g., cumulative case rate, cumulative mortality rate, case fatality risk, stringency index, economic performance) should be identified. Research in these approaches can help manage future pandemics in coronaviruses and emerging infections. The UK started with very loose mitigation ('herd immunity') and then switched to a suppression approach in 2021, followed by "living with the virus" approach. Whereas HK has been targeting towards elimination throughout. In between, countries like Singapore, Australia and New Zealand have shifted from zero-COVID strategy to living with the virus. It is easier to have effective social control measures in Hong Kong because it has clear borders and an authoritarian government, but it did not have a clear exit policy when Omicron spread.

Keywords: COVID-19, masks, social distancing, zero COVID, COVID, elimination, mitigation, containment.

Why is Singapore’s COVID-19 death rate the world’s lowest | Reuters Available from: (Accessed on: 2022 Feb 18).
Leung KKY, Hon KL. Lessons from the mink crisis in Europe to chicken culling in Japan: Culling is cruelty and vaccination is a more viable option for animals. Curr Pediatr Rev 2022.Online ahead of print.
[] [PMID: 35297351]
Leung KKY, Hon KL. The role of media messaging in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy amongst the student population: Friend or foe. Pediatr Pulmonol 2021; 56(12): 4066-8.
[PMID: 34597474]
Leung KKY. Indirect consequences of COVID-19 on children’s health. Hong Kong Med J 2021; 27(2): 160.
[PMID: 33843610]
Hon KL, Leung KKY. From influenza to COVID-19 vaccinations: Counselling anxious parents about deaths following influenza immun-izations in Korea. Pediatr Pulmonol 2021; 56(6): 1779-81.
[PMID: 33765351]
Hon KLE, Leung KKY. Pediatric COVID-19: What disease is this? World J Pediatr 2020; 16(4): 323-5.
[] [PMID: 32556887]
Hon KL, Leung KKY. Paediatrics is a big player of COVID-19 in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J 2020; 26(3): 265-6.
[] [PMID: 32536611]
Li Z, Chen Q, Feng L, Rodewald L, Xia Y, Yu H, et al. Active case finding with case management: The key to tackling the COVID-19 pan-demic. Lancet 2020; 396(10243): 63-70.
[PMID: 32505220]
Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet 2020; 395(10228): 931-4.
[] [PMID: 32164834]
Walensky RP, del Rio C. From mitigation to containment of the covid-19 pandemic. JAMA 2020; 323(19): 1889-90.
[] [PMID: 32301959]
Parodi SM, Liu VX. From containment to mitigation of COVID-19 in the US. JAMA 2020; 323(15): 1441-2.
[] [PMID: 32167525]
Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2020; 395(10242): 1973-87.
[] [PMID: 32497510]
UK Government Face coverings: When to wear one and how to make your own. 2020.
World Health Organization Q&A: Masks and COVID-19. 2020. Available from:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020. Available form: coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html
Gurdasani D, Drury J, Greenhalgh T, et al. Mass infection is not an option: We must do more to protect our young. Lancet 2021; 398(10297): 297-8.
[] [PMID: 34245669]
Limb M. Covid-19: Is the government dismantling pandemic systems too hastily? BMJ 2022; 376: o515.
[] [PMID: 35228255]
Tang JL, Abbasi K. What can the world learn from China’s response to covid-19? BMJ 2021; 375: n2806.
[] [PMID: 34853017]
Voo TC, Ballantyne A, Ng CJ, et al. Public acceptability of COVID-19 control measures in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey. Int J Infect Dis 2022; 120: 51-8.
[PMID: 35430376]
Hon KL, Leung KKY, Hui WF, et al. Applying lessons from influenza pandemics to the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatr Pulmonol 2021; 56: 3071-4.

© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy