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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Systematic Review Article

Impact of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with a Focus on Asian Indians Living in India and Abroad: A Systematic Review

Author(s): Faiz Noor Khan Yusufi*, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad, Athanasios Alexiou*, Ghulam Md Ashraf and Ahad Noor Khan Yusufi

Volume 23, Issue 5, 2023

Published on: 18 November, 2022

Page: [609 - 616] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1871530322666220827161236

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Diabetes is a highly prevalent disease in the world. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization, migration, aging population, and lifestyle changes.

Introduction: We have summarized the global T2DM distribution in specific International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined regions and various countries and highlighted the high risk of T2DM prevalence in Asian Indians living in India and worldwide.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using combinations of the following key concepts ‘T2DM’; ‘global distribution’; ‘Asian Indians’; ‘high risk’ and ‘prevalence’ by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases for articles describing the global distribution of T2DM. From 430 searched articles, 54 full-text articles were reviewed to study the distribution, risk, and prevalence of diabetes in various countries.

Results: As per IDF Atlas, 463 million people in 2019 have diabetes worldwide, and it is expected to rise to 700 million by 2045. The global distribution of T2DM differs from various countries to various regions. Asia is the epicenter of diabetes, where 60% of people with diabetes live, mainly in China (139.9 million) and India (65 million). South Asians are more susceptible to developing T2DM as compared to ethnic Europeans. Asian Indians living worldwide are at a high risk of developing T2DM. Those who have migrated to various countries (USA, UK, Australia, Singapore, Mauritius, New Zealand, Fiji, etc.) have a higher prevalence of T2DM than the native population and even more significant than those Indians living in India due to being more insulin resistant. Indians develop T2DM at a younger age and at a lower BMI due to genetic makeup and behavioral and environmental determinants, including diet and sedentary lifestyle and westernization.

Conclusion: In conclusion, insulin levels were found to be higher not only in adults but also in adolescents and young adults. In addition, rapid urbanization, migration, industrial modernization, and lifestyle changes are other factors responsible for the development of T2DM.

Keywords: Diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, global distribution, asian indians, high risk, insulin resistance.

Graphical Abstract
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