Generic placeholder image

Current Rheumatology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3971
ISSN (Online): 1875-6360

Research Article

Translation and French Linguistic Validation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis

Author(s): Julie Soulard*, Jacques Vaillant, Athan Baillet and Nicolas Vuillerme

Volume 19, Issue 4, 2023

Published on: 21 October, 2022

Page: [449 - 454] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573397118666220829124234

Price: $65


Background: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) may lead to functional and physical disturbances. Self-administered questionnaires can measure functional limitations associated to axSpA. If these questionnaires are currently used in clinical practice and research, the French version of these questionnaires has not been validated. The aim of this study was to translate and perform a linguistic validation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global score (BAS-G) in French.

Methods: The study has been approved by local ethic committee and is registered in Clinical Trial (NCT04212806). The translation process was performed through a forward/backward validation process, followed by clinician experts validation and patient cognitive interviews.

Results: The two questionnaires were translated into a French version by two independent translators. Translators then agreed on sentences being different between the two translations. The backward translation was equivalent to the initial English version except for two questions. Five French clinician experts on rheumatology made essential changes in sentences constructions of the translated questionnaire. The last version of the questionnaires was presented to 5 patients with axSpA which all found them clear and understandable.

Conclusion: BASFI and BAS-G would be a generally reliable instrument for patients with axSpA. These questionnaires can be widely used in clinical practice and research in French-speaking population. The use of these questionnaires is expected to have a positive impact on patient care to better understand physical consequences of axSpA.

Keywords: Ankylosing, spondylitis, spondylarthritis, physical function, BASFI, BAS-G.

Graphical Abstract
Sieper J, Poddubnyy D. Axial spondyloarthritis. Lancet 2017; 390(10089): 73-84.
[] [PMID: 28110981]
Carli L, Calabresi E, Governato G, Braun J. One year in review 2018: Axial spondyloarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2019; 37(6): 889-98.
[PMID: 31796161]
Halvorsen S, Vøllestad NK, Fongen C, et al. Physical fitness in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: Comparison with population controls. Phys Ther 2012; 92(2): 298-309.
[] [PMID: 22095208]
O’Dwyer T, O’Shea F, Wilson F. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: A cross-sectional controlled study. Rheumatol Int 2015; 35(11): 1863-72.
[] [PMID: 26254884]
O’Dwyer T, O’Shea F, Wilson F. Decreased health-related physical fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: A cross-sectional controlled study. Physiotherapy 2016; 102(2): 202-9.
[] [PMID: 26119877]
Boonen A. A review of work-participation, cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies in ankylosing spondylitis. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2006; 2(10): 546-53.
[] [PMID: 17016480]
de Hooge M, Ramonda R, Lorenzin M, et al. Work productivity is associated with disease activity and functional ability in Italian patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: An observational study from the SPACE cohort. Arthritis Res Ther 2016; 18(1): 265.
[] [PMID: 27852321]
Singh JA, Strand V. Spondyloarthritis is associated with poor function and physical health-related quality of life. J Rheumatol 2009; 36(5): 1012-20.
[] [PMID: 19369461]
Huang J, Qian B, Qiu Y, et al. Quality of life and correlation with clinical and radiographic variables in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A retrospective case series study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2017; 18(1): 352.
[] [PMID: 28810915]
Protopopov M, Sieper J, Haibel H, Listing J, Rudwaleit M, Poddubnyy D. Relevance of structural damage in the sacroiliac joints for the functional status and spinal mobility in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: Results from the German Spondyloarthritis Inception Cohort. Arthritis Res Ther 2017; 19(1): 240.
[] [PMID: 29065931]
Poddubnyy D, Listing J, Haibel H, Knüppel S, Rudwaleit M, Sieper J. Functional relevance of radiographic spinal progression in axial spondyloarthritis: Results from the German spondyloarthritis inception cohort. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018; 57(4): 703-11.
[] [PMID: 29373733]
Nossent JC, Sagen-Johnsen S, Bakland G. Disease activity and patient-reported health measures in relation to cytokine levels in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Ther 2019; 6(3): 369-78.
[] [PMID: 31147969]
Sieper J, Rudwaleit M, Baraliakos X, et al. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) handbook: A guide to assess spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68(Suppl. 2): ii 1-44.
[] [PMID: 19433414]
Spoorenberg A, van der Heijde D, de Klerk E, et al. A comparative study of the usefulness of the bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index and the dougados functional index in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26(4): 961-5.
[PMID: 10229428]
Calin A, Garrett S, Whitelock H, et al. A new approach to defining functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis: The development of the bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index. J Rheumatol 1994; 21(12): 2281-5.
[PMID: 7699629]
Zochling J. Measures of symptoms and disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale (ASQoL), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), bath ankylosing sp. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63(S11): S47-58.
[] [PMID: 22588768]
Jones SD, Steiner A, Garrett SL, Calin A. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis patient Global score (BAS-G). Rheumatology (Oxford) 1996; 35(1): 66-71.
[] [PMID: 8624626]
Dernis E, Lavie F, Pavy S, et al. Clinical and laboratory follow-up for treating and monitoring patients with ankylosing spondylitis: Development of recommendations for clinical practice based on published evidence and expert opinion. Joint Bone Spine 2007; 74(4): 330-7.
[] [PMID: 17590366]
Popescu C, Trandafir M. Bădică A, Morar F, Predeţeanu D. Ankylosing spondylitis functional and activity indices in clinical practice. J Med Life 2014; 7(1): 78-83.
[PMID: 24653763]
Braun J, Kiltz U, Baraliakos X, van der Heijde D. Optimisation of rheumatology assessments - The actual situation in axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014; 32(5) (Suppl. 85): S-96-S-104.
[PMID: 25365096]
Fongen C, Dagfinrud H, Bilberg A, et al. Responsiveness and interpretability of 2 measures of physical function in patients with spondyloarthritis. Phys Ther 2020; 100(4): 728-38.
[] [PMID: 31944251]
Rodrigues-Manica S, Silva J, Cruz-Machado R, et al. Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and patient-reported outcomes in axial SpA: A systematic review and a call for action. Clin Rheumatol 2021; 40(1): 33-41.
[] [PMID: 32533340]
López-Medina C, Dougados M, Collantes-Estévez E, Moltó A. Adherence to recommendations for the use of anti–tumour necrosis factor and its impact over 5 years of follow-up in axial spondyloarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018; 57(5): 880-90.
[] [PMID: 29474666]
Klemm P, Hudowenz O, Asendorf T, et al. Evaluation of a special concept of physical therapy in spondyloarthritis: German multimodal rheumatologic complex treatment for spondyloarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2020; 39(5): 1513-20.
[] [PMID: 31916106]
Stone MA, Pomeroy E, Keat A, et al. Assessment of the impact of flares in ankylosing spondylitis disease activity using the Flare illustration. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47(8): 1213-8.
[] [PMID: 18539622]
van Weely SFE, Kneepkens EL, Nurmohamed MT, Dekker J, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE. Continuous improvement of physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis patients by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: Three-year follow up and predictors. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2016; 68(10): 1522-9.
[] [PMID: 26881893]
WHO | Process of translation and adaptation of instruments. Available from: ion/en/ (Accessed on: 14 Oct 2020).
Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, et al. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: Report of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation. Value Health 2005; 8(2): 94-104.
[] [PMID: 15804318]
Yoon YE, Cho SY. Translation and linguistic validation of the Korean version of the wisconsin stone quality of life questionnaire. Int Neurourol J 2020; 24(1): 77-83.
[] [PMID: 32252189]
Poder TG, Carrier N, Mead H, Stevens KJ. Canadian french translation and linguistic validation of the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D). Health Qual Life Outcomes 2018; 16(1): 168.
[] [PMID: 30157857]
Schettini A-V, Rillon P, Pirson G, De Coninck C. Completion of the French translation and linguistic validation of the BODY-Q. Psychiatr Danub 2020; 32 (Suppl. 1): 150-2.
[PMID: 32890380]
Khouri C, Blaise S, Guigui A, et al. French translation and linguistic validation of the Raynaud’s condition score. Therapie 2019; 74(6): 627-31.
[] [PMID: 31023622]
Ward MM, Kuzis S. Validity and sensitivity to change of spondylitis-specific measures of functional disability. J Rheumatol 1999; 26(1): 121-7.
[PMID: 9918252]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy