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Current HIV Research


ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Research Article

Serum Interleukin-6 and Weight Loss in Antiretroviral-naïve and Antiretroviral-treated Patients with HIV/AIDS: Relationships and Predictors

Author(s): Tewogbade Adeoye Adedeji*, Nife Olamide Adedeji, Abiodun Kofoworola Ajeigbe, Olufemi Samuel Smith, Olusola Akanni Jeje, Michael Bimbo Fawale, Abiodun Olabamiji Ajose, Simeon Adelani Adebisi, Adeyinka Abdulrasak Akande and Bashiru Adekunle Okesina

Volume 20, Issue 6, 2022

Published on: 02 November, 2022

Page: [441 - 456] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X20666220901085926

Price: $65


Background: Cachexia is usually associated with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL6) as it stimulates the breakdown of muscle proteins and promotes wasting.

Objective: A case-control study to evaluate the relationship between weight loss, facial fat loss, and IL-6 in antiretroviral-naïve and treated participants living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: IL-6 was assayed by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 97 in consecutive newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive (ART-naïve) people living with HIV/AIDS (age ≥18 years); and 118 consecutive, age-matched participants currently on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), using age as a criterion. In the treated group, 78 (66.7%) subjects were on zidovudine, lamivudine with nevirapine (Z+L+N); 27(23.1%) on tenofovir, lamivudine with emtricitabine (T+L+E); 5(4.3%) on zidovudine, lamivudine with emtricitabine (Z+L+E); 4(3.4%) on zidovudine, lamivudine with tenofovir (Z+L+T); 2(1.7%) on lamivudine, tenofovir with nevirapine (L+T+N); 1(0.9%) on tenofovir, zidovudine, emtricitabine (Z+T+E).

Results: A total of 215 participants: 97 ART-naive and 118 HAART-treated, age-matched subjects (40.3±9.6 versus 42.7±10.20years, p=0.08). The mean IL-6 was significantly higher in naïve than treated (0.69±0.04 versus 0.66±0.04 pg/ml, p =0.002). In all, 73 subjects experienced weight loss, 56(76.7%) naive, 17(23.3%) treated, p <0.0001, with significantly higher IL-6 in those with weight loss (0.69±0.05 versus 0.67±0.05pg/ml, p= 0.047). Fifty-eight (27.0%) subjects experienced facial fat loss, 49 (84.5%) naïve, and 9 (15.5%) treated, p <0.0001, with significantly higher IL-6 in those with facial fat loss (0.7 ± 0.05 versus 0.67±0.05pg/ml, p= 0.0001). Negative correlation exists between IL-6 and CD4+ count (r=-0.141, p=0.041). In logistic regression, independent predictors of weight loss include: IL-6 (Adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0·1–2·6, p=0.047); HIV duration (aOR 11.6, p <0.0001); AIDS-defining illness (aOR 3.5, p <0.0001); CD4+ count (aOR 3.2, p=0.004); HAART status (aOR 2.7, p<0.0001).

Conclusion: HIV infection is associated with elevation of serum interleukin-6, which likely contributes to weight and facial fat loss among the treatment-naïve participants; while HAART is associated with suppressed IL-6 levels, thereby ameliorating weight and facial fat loss. Inverse relationship exists between serum IL-6 and CD4+ count; serum IL-6 could differentiate between mild- to moderate and severe immunosuppressive states.

Keywords: Antiretroviral-naïve, antiretroviral-treated patients, HIV/AIDS, facial fat loss, interleukin 6, weight loss.

Graphical Abstract
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