Background: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) infections are high and the programme for Cervical Cancer Screening is weak in Nigeria.
Objectives: Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 co-infection and cervical cytology among HSV-2 co-infected Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sero-positive (HIV+) women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending Human Immunodeficiency Virus clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku/Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Active participants included 105 HIV seropositive women on HAART and104 HIV seronegative (HIV-) women who passed inclusion criteria and signed written informed consent. Each participant was coded with a specific number. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic and medical history. Serum was obtained for HSV-2 serology test for all participants and HIV screening for HIV-negative participants. Cervical smears were collected for Papanicolaou stains and Immunocytochemistry using anti-P16INKa antibody.
Results: Prevalence of HSV-2+ was 50.5% among HIV+ women on HAART and 16.3% among HIV- women, Odds Ratios [95% CI]; p-value was 5.21 [2.74-9.94]; p < 0.0001. HIV+ women on HAART co-infected with HSV-2 significantly had more Cervical Lesions, 11.4% compared to HIVwomen uninfected with HSV-2, 4.8%, OR [95% CI]; p-value 4.8 (1.58-14.54); p = 0.006.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HSV-2 was significantly high among HIV+ women on HAART. HSV-2+ co-infection could be an enhancer of Cervical Lesions among HIV+ women on HAART. Hence, anti-herpetic agent introduction and screening for HSV-2 among HIV+ patients are recommended.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/589621] [PMID: 18593294]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000222078.75867.77] [PMID: 16603858]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir649] [PMID: 21998479]