Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Research Article

Graphite Separation in Sunflower Oil and a Possible Food Monitoring Sensor via Near-infrared Spectroscopy

Author(s): Raz Noori Arif*

Volume 19, Issue 8, 2023

Published on: 26 December, 2022

Page: [838 - 844] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573401319666221207092120

open access plus

Abstract

Introduction: As a quick and non-destructive testing method, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has become more popular for identifying food adulteration, manipulation, and deception. Sunflower oil is a widely used food item that may be contaminated or even adulterated with potentially harmful chemical substances associated with health issues.

Methods: In this regard, this study was carried out to examine the applicability of near- and midinfrared spectroscopy to identify modifications in the pure sunflower oil and sunflower oil dispersed with graphite. The dispersion of graphite powder in sunflower oil was achieved using the ultrasonic technique. The samples were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Changes in the FTIR signal were observed, indicating changes in the hydrogen atoms distribution within the solution. The flattened peak at 3470 cm-1 was associated with the overtone of glyceride ester carbonyl absorption compared to pure SO. Additionally, the stretching vibration of carbonyl groups of triglyceride esters occurred as a significant absorption band at 1754 cm-1, and the FTIR absorption at 1447 cm-1 was absent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed transparent layers of graphene sandwiched with sunflower oil with a distinct flake-like shape.

Conclusion: These findings support dispersed graphite in sunflower oil to check the food quality.

Keywords: Graphite powder, sunflower oil, ultrasonication, fourier transform, infrared spectroscopy FTIR, transmission electron microscopy.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Butler EE, Huybers P. Adaptation of US maize to temperature variations. Nat Clim Chang 2013; 3(1): 68-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1585]
[2]
Avnery S, Mauzerall DL, Fiore AM. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone‐resistant cultivar selection. Glob Change Biol 2013; 19(4): 1285-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12118] [PMID: 23504903]
[3]
Mousavi SR. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 2011; 10: 414-9.
[4]
Jorio MS. Ado, Dresselhaus, Gene, Dresselhaus.In: Carbon Nanotubes. Springer 2008; p. 744.
[5]
Ghanem A, Abdel RM. Assisted tip sonication approach for graphene synthesis in aqueous dispersion. Biomedicines 2018; 6(2): 63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020063] [PMID: 29843372]
[6]
Lee CW, Suh JM, Jang HW. Chemical sensors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials for selective detection of ions and molecules in liquid. Front Chem 2019; 7(9): 708.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00708] [PMID: 31803712]
[7]
Allsop T, Arif R, Neal R, et al. Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures. Light Sci Appl 2016; 5(2): e16036.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/lsa.2016.36] [PMID: 30167146]
[8]
Zhao G, Wen T, Chen C, Wang X. Synthesis of graphene-based nanomaterials and their application in energy-related and environmental-related areas. RSC Advances 2012; 2(25): 9286-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2ra20990j]
[9]
Ramsden J. Essentials of nanotechnology. Bookboon 2014; p. 126.
[10]
Perreault F, Fonseca de Faria A, Elimelech M. Environmental applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. Chem Soc Rev 2015; 44(16): 5861-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5CS00021A] [PMID: 25812036]
[11]
Sanchez VC, Jachak A, Hurt RH, Kane AB. Biological interactions of graphene-family nanomaterials: An interdisciplinary review. Chem Res Toxicol 2012; 25(1): 15-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx200339h] [PMID: 21954945]
[12]
Choucair M, Thordarson P, Stride JA. Gram-scale production of graphene based on solvothermal synthesis and sonication. Nat Nanotechnol 2009; 4(1): 30-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.365] [PMID: 19119279]
[13]
Balandin AA. Phononics of graphene and related materials. ACS Nano 2020; 14(5): 5170-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c02718] [PMID: 32338870]
[14]
Sundramoorthy AK, Gunasekaran S. Applications of graphene in quality assurance and safety of food. Trends Analyt Chem 2014; 60: 36-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2014.04.015]
[15]
Tan T, Jiang X, Wang C, Yao B, Zhang H. 2D Material optoelectronics for information functional device applications: Status and challenges. Adv Sci 2020; 7(11): 2000058.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202000058] [PMID: 32537415]
[16]
Faraldos M, Bahamonde A. Environmental applications of titania-graphene photocatalysts. Catal Today 2017; 285: 13-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2017.01.029]
[17]
N T D and J J S Martínez-Force Martínez-Force, Sunflower Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization 1st Edi. Academic Press and AOCS Press 2015.
[18]
Ayerdi GA, Larbi R. Access sunflower: Some examples of current research Sunflower: Examples of Research Effects of refining process on sunflower oil minor components: A review 2016. OCL 2016; 23(2): D207.
[19]
Gupta MK, Padhan M, Bijwe J. Combination of nano-particles of graphite and PTFE in the right amount for synergism as anti-wear and extreme pressure additive in oil. Surf Topogr 2021; 9(3): 035049.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2051-672X/ac2561]
[20]
Liu J, Bao S, Wang X. Applications of graphene-based materials in sensors: A Review. Micromachines 2022; 13(2): 184.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13020184] [PMID: 35208308]
[21]
Kitko KE, Zhang Q. Graphene-based nanomaterials: From production to integration with modern tools in neuroscience. Front Syst Neurosci 2019; 13(7): 26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00026] [PMID: 31379522]
[22]
Vlachos N, Skopelitis Y, Psaroudaki M, Konstantinidou V, Chatzilazarou A, Tegou E. Applications of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy to edible oils. Anal Chim Acta 2006; 573-574: 459-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.034] [PMID: 17723561]
[23]
Cabo N. Fourier transform infrared spectra data versus peroxide and anisidine values to determine oxidative stability of edible oils 2002; 77: 503-10.
[24]
Dadvar E, Heidari A. Clinical medical reviews and case reports a review on separation techniques of Graphene Oxide (GO)/Base on hybrid polymer membranes for eradication of dyes and oil compounds: Recent progress in Graphene Oxide (GO)/Base on polymer membranes-related nanotechnologies. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 2018; 5(8): 228.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.23937/2378-3656/1410228]
[25]
Properties M. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide-modified Sapium sebiferum oil-based polyurethane composites with improved thermal and mechanical properties. Polymers 2018; 10(2): 133.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10020133]
[26]
Hornekær L. Stabilizing a C−H bond on graphene with sound. Science (80- ) 2019; 365(6438): 331-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aax1980]
[27]
Jiang H, et al. Imaging covalent bond formation by H atom scattering from graphene. Science (80- ) 2019; 362(6438): 379-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw6378]
[28]
Cioates CN. Review — Electrochemical sensors used in the determination of riboflavin review — electrochemical sensors used in the determination of Ribo flavin 2020. J Electrochem Soc 2020; 167(3): 037558.
[29]
Sensors E. An overview of optical and electrochemical sensors and biosensors for analysis of antioxidants in food during the last 5 years 2021. Sensors 2021; 21: 1176.
[30]
Titov AV, Král P, Pearson R. Sandwiched graphene--membrane superstructures. ACS Nano 2010; 4(1): 229-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn9015778] [PMID: 20025267]

© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy