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Recent Advances in Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2772-2708
ISSN (Online): 2772-2716

Research Article

COVID-19 Associated Pancytopenia (CAP): A Clinical Impact

Author(s): Jitendra Singh, Anju Dinkar*, Nilesh Kumar and Kailash Kumar

Volume 17, Issue 1, 2023

Published on: 22 December, 2022

Page: [71 - 78] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2772270817666221207094122

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has mild and asymptomatic to critical clinical course affecting mainly the lungs. Few case reports of COVID-19-associated pancytopenia are reported, but a series of 18 cases is not described in the literature to date.

Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate pancytopenia in COVID-19 and its correlation with severity and to explore the detailed clinical and biochemical information in COVID-19- associated pancytopenia. This study also highlights pancytopenia's rarity and prognostic value among COVID-19 patients.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre at a level 3 COVID care facility that included adults of either sex having positive RT PCR for COVID-19 from October 2020 to May 2021. Data were collected from the online outpatient department and hospitalized patients.

Results: A total of 18 cases were included in the study; 13 were males (72.2%). The mean age was calculated as 48.56 years. Cases were categorized as severe 13 (72.2%) and non-severe 5 (27.8%) disease on the first day of pancytopenia. The most common presentations were fever 18 (100%) and cough 18 (100%), followed by generalized weakness 16 (88.9%), breathlessness 15 (83.3%), and diarrhoea 10 (55.6%). One case died in the severe disease group. The mean of haemoglobin, leukocyte count, and platelets in severe vs non-severe disease were calculated as 8.59 vs 8.74, 2339 vs 2578, and 77769 vs 88600, respectively.

Conclusion: Pancytopenia was more prevalent in severe disease and age group 40-60 years. CAP was most likely due to secondary bone marrow suppression. It has no prognostic value for disease outcomes.

Keywords: Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hematological abnormality, SARS-CoV-2 infection, pancytopenia.

Graphical Abstract
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