Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery


ISSN (Print): 2772-2708
ISSN (Online): 2772-2716

Review Article

Hepatitis E virus and Zoonosis: Recent Advances and Therapeutic Implications

Author(s): Kam L.E. Hon*, Alexander K.C. Leung, Alex H.C. Wong and Siddharth Sridhar

Volume 17, Issue 1, 2023

Published on: 07 February, 2023

Page: [54 - 63] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2772270817666230112123221

Price: $65


Hepatitis E is viral hepatitis caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). This article aims to review HEV disease and recent advances in the management of hepatitis E. We used PubMed Clinical Queries and keywords of “hepatitis E”, “hepatitis E virus” AND “zoonosis” as the search engine. “Therapy”, “Clinical Prediction Guides”, “Diagnosis”, “Etiology” and “Prognosis” were used as filters, and “Narrow” scope was used. The search was conducted in April 2022. The information retrieved from the above search was used in the compilation of the present article. Hepatitis E is viral hepatitis caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route. Hepatitis E infection usually follows an acute and self-limiting course of illness with low death rates in resource-rich areas; however, it can be more severe in pregnant women and immunocompromised people. The mortality rates in these groups are substantially higher. A vaccine for HEV is available but is not universally approved. Ribavirin remains the most efficacious medication for the treatment of HEV but is contraindicated in pregnancy. Sofosbuvir and pegylated interferon, with or without ribavirin, have not been shown in the latest literature reviews to provide reliable additional benefits to the treatment of hepatitis. Sofosbuvir should not be used as monotherapy for HEV. Food is an important source of infection in many countries while rats are the primary vector in developing nations. Management must include an understanding of the rat habitats for this zoonotic disease. Hepatitis E remains an important cause of hepatitis and a zoonotic disease globally. Public health policies are key to containing this viral infectious disease, including policy in the transfusion of blood products.

Keywords: Hepatitis E, zoonosis, hepatitis E virus, ribavirin, sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon.

Kamar N, Dalton HR, Abravanel F, Izopet J. Hepatitis E virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2014; 27(1): 116-38.
[] [PMID: 24396139]
Raji YE, Toung OP, Taib NM, Sekawi ZB, Hepatitis E. Virus: An emerging enigmatic and underestimated pathogen. Saudi J Biol Sci 2022; 29(1): 499-512.
[] [PMID: 35002446]
Kumar S, Subhadra S, Singh B, Panda BK. Hepatitis E virus: the current scenario. Int J Infect Dis 2013; 17(4): e228-33.
[] [PMID: 23313154]
Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH, Hepatitis E. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(13): 1237-44.
[] [PMID: 23013075]
Patra S, Kumar A, Trivedi SS, Puri M, Sarin SK. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E virus infection. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147(1): 28-33.
[] [PMID: 17606958]
Zhou X, de Man RA, de Knegt RJ, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q. Epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis E infection in solid organ transplantation: a comprehensive literature review. Rev Med Virol 2013; 23(5): 295-304.
[] [PMID: 23813631]
Kamar N, Izopet J, Dalton HR. Chronic hepatitis e virus infection and treatment. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2013; 3(2): 134-40.
[] [PMID: 25755487]
Pavio N, Meng XJ, Renou C. Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. Vet Res 2010; 41(6): 46.
[] [PMID: 20359452]
Meng XJ. Hepatitis E virus: Animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk. Vet Microbiol 2010; 140(3-4): 256-65.
[] [PMID: 19361937]
Johne R, Heckel G, Plenge-Bönig A, et al. Novel hepatitis E virus genotype in Norway rats, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16(9): 1452-5.
[] [PMID: 20735931]
Sridhar S, Yip CCY, Wu S, et al. Rat Hepatitis E virus as cause of persistent hepatitis after liver transplant. Emerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(12): 2241-50.
[] [PMID: 30457530]
Li TC, Chijiwa K, Sera N, et al. Hepatitis E virus transmission from wild boar meat. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11(12): 1958-60.
[] [PMID: 16485490]
Kuniholm MH, Nelson KE. Of organ meats and hepatitis E virus: one part of a larger puzzle is solved. J Infect Dis 2008; 198(12): 1727-8.
[] [PMID: 18983247]
Johne R, Plenge-Bönig A, Hess M, Ulrich RG, Reetz J, Schielke A. Detection of a novel hepatitis E-like virus in faeces of wild rats using a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR. J Gen Virol 2010; 91(3): 750-8.
[] [PMID: 19889929]
Satou K, Nishiura H. Transmission dynamics of hepatitis E among swine: potential impact upon human infection. BMC Vet Res 2007; 3(1): 9.
[] [PMID: 17493260]
Pérez-Gracia MT, Suay-García B, Mateos-Lindemann ML. Hepatitis E and pregnancy: current state. Rev Med Virol 2017; 27(3): e1929.
[] [PMID: 28318080]
Smith DB, Purdy MA, Simmonds P. Genetic variability and the classification of hepatitis E virus. J Virol 2013; 87(8): 4161-9.
[] [PMID: 23388713]
Mirazo S, Mir D, Bello G, Ramos N, Musto H, Arbiza J. New insights into the hepatitis E virus genotype 3 phylodynamics and evolutionary history. Infect Genet Evol 2016; 43: 267-73.
[] [PMID: 27264728]
Dalton HR, Kamar N, Baylis SA, Moradpour D, Wedemeyer H, Negro F. EASL Clinical practice guidelines on hepatitis E virus infection. J Hepatol 2018; 68(6): 1256-71.
[] [PMID: 29609832]
Sridhar S, Teng J, Chiu TH, Lau S, Woo P. Hepatitis E virus genotypes and evolution: Emergence of camel hepatitis E variants. Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18(4): 869.
[] [PMID: 28425927]
Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE. Evolutionary history and population dynamics of hepatitis E virus. PLoS One 2010; 5(12): e14376.
[] [PMID: 21203540]
Baha S, Behloul N, Liu Z, Wei W, Shi R, Meng J. Comprehensive analysis of genetic and evolutionary features of the hepatitis E virus. BMC Genomics 2019; 20(1): 790.
[] [PMID: 31664890]
Song YJ. Studies of hepatitis E virus genotypes. Indian J Med Res 2010; 132(5): 487-8.
[PMID: 21149996]
Pelosi E, Clarke I, Hepatitis E. A complex and global disease. Emerg Health Threats J 2008; 1.
Woolson KL, Forbes A, Vine L, et al. Extra-hepatic manifestations of autochthonous hepatitis E infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014; 40(11-12): 1282-91.
[] [PMID: 25303615]
Dai X, Dong C, Zhou Z, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype 4, Nanjing, China, 2001-2011. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(9): 1528-30.
[] [PMID: 23965731]
Tam AW, Smith MM, Guerra ME, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV): Molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 1991; 185(1): 120-31.
[] [PMID: 1926770]
Ankavay M, Montpellier C, Sayed IM, et al. New insights into the ORF2 capsid protein, a key player of the hepatitis E virus lifecycle. Sci Rep 2019; 9(1): 6243.
[] [PMID: 31000788]
Ahmad I, Holla RP, Jameel S. Molecular virology of hepatitis E virus. Virus Res 2011; 161(1): 47-58.
[] [PMID: 21345356]
Bradley DW, Purdy MA, Reyes GR. Hepatitis E virus genome. J Hepatol 1991; 13 (Suppl. 4): S152-4.
[] [PMID: 1822509]
Ansari IH, Nanda SK, Durgapal H, et al. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) nonstructural open reading frame 1 (ORF1). J Med Virol 2000; 60(3): 275-83.
Parvez MK. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus ORF1 gene supports a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP)-domain activity. Virus Res 2013; 178(2): 553-6.
[] [PMID: 23978667]
Wang Y, Zhang H, Ling R, Li H, Harrison TJ. The complete sequence of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 reveals an alternative strategy for translation of open reading frames 2 and 3. Microbiology (Reading) 2000; 81(7): 1675-86.
[] [PMID: 10859372]
Huang YW, Opriessnig T, Halbur PG, Meng XJ. Initiation at the third in-frame AUG codon of open reading frame 3 of the hepatitis E virus is essential for viral infectivity in vivo. J Virol 2007; 81(6): 3018-26.
[] [PMID: 17202216]
Ding Q, Heller B, Capuccino JMV, et al. Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion channel required for release of infectious particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2017; 114(5): 1147-52.
[] [PMID: 28096411]
Chandra V, Taneja S, Kalia M, Jameel S. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus. J Biosci 2008; 33(4): 451-64.
[] [PMID: 19208971]
Mori Y, Matsuura Y. Structure of hepatitis E viral particle. Virus Res 2011; 161(1): 59-64.
[] [PMID: 21440590]
He M, Wang M, Huang Y, et al. The ORF3 protein of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus suppresses TLR3-induced NF-κB signaling via TRADD and RIP1. Sci Rep 2016; 6(1): 27597.
[] [PMID: 27270888]
Parvez MK, Al-Dosari MS. Evidence of MAPK–JNK1/2 activation by hepatitis E virus ORF3 protein in cultured hepatoma cells. Cytotechnology 2015; 67(3): 545-50.
[] [PMID: 25280525]
Cao D, Meng XJ. Molecular biology and replication of hepatitis E virus. Emerg Microbes Infect 2012; 1(1): 1-10.
[] [PMID: 26038426]
Guu TSY, Liu Z, Ye Q, et al. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly and receptor binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106(31): 12992-7.
[] [PMID: 19622744]
Nimgaonkar I, Archer NF, Becher I, et al. Isocotoin suppresses hepatitis E virus replication through inhibition of heat shock protein 90. Antiviral Res 2021; 185: 104997.
[] [PMID: 33326835]
Park SB. Hepatitis E vaccine debuts. Nature 2012; 491(7422): 21-2.
[] [PMID: 23128204]
Salagre KD, Sahay RN, Pazare AR, Dubey A, Marathe KK. A study of clinical profile of patients presenting with complications of acute febrile illnesses during monsoon. J Assoc Physicians India 2017; 65(9): 37-42.
[PMID: 29313575]
Guthmann JP, Klovstad H, Boccia D, et al. A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: The role of water treatment methods. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42(12): 1685-91.
[] [PMID: 16705572]
Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis E: The epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Res 2011; 161(1): 3-14.
[] [PMID: 21320558]
Cowie BC, Adamopoulos J, Carter K, Kelly H. Hepatitis E infections, Victoria, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11(3): 482-4.
[] [PMID: 15757573]
Rein DB, Stevens GA, Theaker J, Wittenborn JS, Wiersma ST. The global burden of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005. Hepatology 2012; 55(4): 988-97.
[] [PMID: 22121109]
Aggarwal R, Hepatitis E, Hepatitis E. Historical, contemporary and future perspectives. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 26 (Suppl. 1): 72-82.
[] [PMID: 21199517]
Navaneethan U, Al Mohajer M, Shata MT. Hepatitis E and pregnancy: understanding the pathogenesis. Liver Int 2008; 28(9): 1190-9.
[] [PMID: 18662274]
Grierson S, Heaney J, Cheney T, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in Pigs at the time of slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21(8): 1396-401.
[] [PMID: 26196216]
Cooper BS, White LJ, Siddiqui R. Reactive and pre-emptive vaccination strategies to control hepatitis E infection in emergency and refugee settings: A modelling study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(9): e0006807.
[] [PMID: 30252843]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigation of hepatitis E outbreak among refugees - Upper Nile, South Sudan, 2012-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013; 26;62(29): 581- 6.
[PMID: 23884344]
Chan MCW, Kwok K, Hung TN, Chan PKS. Molecular epidemiology and strain comparison between hepatitis E viruses in human sera and pig livers during 2014 to 2016 in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol 2017; 55(5): 1408-15.
[] [PMID: 28202801]
Andonov A, Robbins M, Borlang J, et al. Rat Hepatitis E virus linked to severe acute hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. J Infect Dis 2019; 220(6): 951-5.
[] [PMID: 30649379]
Sridhar S, Yip CC, Wu S, et al. Transmission of rat hepatitis E virus infection to humans in Hong Kong: A clinical and epidemiological analysis Hepatology 2020; hep.31138.
Sridhar S, Yip CC-Y, Lo KH-Y, et al. Hepatitis E virus species C infection in humans, Hong Kong. Clin Infect Dis 2021.
[] [PMID: 34718428]
Rivero-Juarez A, Frias M, Perez AB, et al. Orthohepevirus C infection as an emerging cause of acute hepatitis in Spain: First report in Europe. J Hepatol 2022; 77(2): 326-31.
[] [PMID: 35167911]
Hon KL, Sridhar S. Rat Hepatitis E in an immunocompromised patient. Indian Pediatr 2020; 57(11): 1085-6.
[] [PMID: 33231190]
Hepatitis E Virus and Food | FAQ | Food Safety Authority of Ireland Available from: (Accessed on: May 2, 2022).
Haffar S, Bazerbachi F, Leise MD, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the association between hepatitis E seroprevalence and haemodialysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017; 46(9): 790-9.
[] [PMID: 28869287]
James SL, Abate D, Abate KH, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392(10159): 1789-858.
[] [PMID: 30496104]
Harun-Or-Rashid M, Akbar SMF, Takahashi K, et al. Epidemiological and molecular analyses of a non-seasonal outbreak of acute icteric hepatitis E in Bangladesh. J Med Virol 2013; 85(8): 1369-76.
[] [PMID: 23703666]
Bonnet D, Kamar N, Izopet J, Alric L. Hepatitis E: an emerging disease. Rev Med Interne 2012; 33(6): 328-34.
[] [PMID: 22405325]
Behrendt P, Steinmann E, Manns MP, Wedemeyer H. The impact of hepatitis E in the liver transplant setting. J Hepatol 2014; 61(6): 1418-29.
[] [PMID: 25195557]
Kamar N, Pischke S. Acute and persistent hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4 infection: clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2019; 9(7): a031872.
[] [PMID: 29735575]
Bazerbachi F, Haffar S, Garg SK, Lake JR. Extra-hepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis E virus infection: a comprehensive review of the literature. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2015; 4(1): gov042.
[] [PMID: 26358655]
Rivero-Juárez A, Aguilera A, Avellón A, et al. Executive summary: Consensus document of the diagnosis, management and prevention of infection with the hepatitis E virus: Study Group for Viral Hepatitis (GEHEP) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed). 2020; 38: p. (1)28-32.
[] [PMID: 30072282]
Kamar N, Bendall RP, Peron JM, et al. Hepatitis E virus and neurologic disorders. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(2): 173-9.
[] [PMID: 21291585]
Despierres LA, Kaphan E, Attarian S, et al. Neurologic disorders and hepatitis E, France, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(8): 1510-2.
[] [PMID: 21801637]
Perrin HB, Cintas P, Abravanel F, et al. Neurologic disorders in immunocompetent patients with autochthonous acute hepatitis E. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21(11): 1928-34.
[] [PMID: 26490255]
Dalton HR, Kamar N, van Eijk JJJ, et al. Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury. Nat Rev Neurol 2016; 12(2): 77-85.
[] [PMID: 26711839]
Kumar A, Beniwal M, Kar P, Sharma JB, Murthy NS. Hepatitis E in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85(3): 240-4.
[] [PMID: 15145258]
Aggarwal R, Naik S. Epidemiology of hepatitis E: current status 2009; (24): 1484-93.
Khuroo M, Khuroo M, Khuroo N. Transmission of hepatitis E virus in developing countries. Viruses 2016; 8(9): 253.
[] [PMID: 27657112]
Bose PD, Das BC, Hazam RK, Kumar A, Medhi S, Kar P. Evidence of extrahepatic replication of hepatitis E virus in human placenta. J Gen Virol 2014; 95(6): 1266-71.
[] [PMID: 24622580]
Aggarwal R. Diagnosis of hepatitis E. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 10(1): 24-33.
[] [PMID: 23026902]
Fang L, Zhang J, Chen H, Lv F, Yu Y, Du X. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E in a tertiary hospital in China: A retrospective study. Front Microbiol 2022; 12: 831968.
[] [PMID: 35310389]
Candido A, Taffon S, Chionne P, et al. Diagnosis of HEV infection by serological and real-time PCR assays: a study on acute non-A-C hepatitis collected from 2004 to 2010 in Italy. BMC Res Notes 2012; 5(1): 297.
[] [PMID: 22704073]
Wu WC, Su CW, Yang JY, Lin SF, Chen JY, Wu JC. Application of serologic assays for diagnosing acute hepatitis E in national surveillance of a nonendemic area. J Med Virol 2014; 86(4): 720-8.
[] [PMID: 24395716]
Zhao C, Wang Y. Laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016; 948: 191-209.
[] [PMID: 27738986]
Baylis SA, Blümel J, Mizusawa S, et al. World Health Organization International Standard to harmonize assays for detection of hepatitis E virus RNA. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(5): 729-35.
[] [PMID: 23647659]
Webb GW, Dalton HR. Hepatitis E: an underestimated emerging threat. Ther Adv Infect Dis 2019; 6.
[] [PMID: 30984394]
Ying D, He Q, Tian W, et al. Urine is a viral antigen reservoir in hepatitis E virus infection Hepatology 2022; hep.32745.
[] [PMID: 36106666]
Fogeda M, de Ory F, Avellón A, Echevarría JM. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis E virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with suspected hepatitis E. J Clin Virol 2009; 45(3): 259-61.
[] [PMID: 19505848]
Dalton HR, Kamar N. Treatment of hepatitis E virus. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2016; 29(6): 639-44.
[] [PMID: 27607911]
Colson P, Decoster C. Recent data on hepatitis E. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019; 32(5): 475-81.
[] [PMID: 31361659]
Nelson KE, Heaney CD, Labrique AB, et al. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2016; 29(5): 478-85.
[] [PMID: 27454402]
Behrendt P, Friesland M, Wißmann JE, et al. Hepatitis E virus is highly resistant to alcohol-based disinfectants. J Hepatol 2022; 76(5): 1062-9.
[] [PMID: 35085595]
de Zárraga Mata C, Escudero Roldán M, Thomas Salom G, Rull Murillo N, Dolz Abadía C. Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis E virus after raw meat consumption. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 40(6): 395-6.
[] [PMID: 27496809]
Emerson SU, Arankalle VA, Purcell RH. Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus. J Infect Dis 2005; 192(5): 930-3.
[] [PMID: 16088844]
Dreier J, Knabbe C, Vollmer T. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E: NAT screening of blood donations and infectious dose. Front Med (Lausanne) 2018; 5: 5.
[] [PMID: 29450199]
Hans R, Marwaha N. Nucleic acid testing-benefits and constraints. Asian J Transfus Sci 2014; 8(1): 2-3.
[] [PMID: 24678164]
Cao Y, Bing Z, Guan S, Zhang Z, Wang X. Development of new hepatitis E vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14(9): 2254-62.
[] [PMID: 29708836]
Shrestha MP, Scott RM, Joshi DM, et al. Safety and efficacy of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(9): 895-903.
[] [PMID: 17329696]
Li SW, Zhao Q, Wu T, Chen S, Zhang J, Xia NS. The development of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine HEV 239. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2015; 11(4): 908-14.
[] [PMID: 25714510]
Labrique AB, Sikder SS, Krain LJ, et al. Hepatitis E, a vaccine-preventable cause of maternal deaths. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18(9): 1401-4.
[] [PMID: 22931753]
Hepatitis E vaccine: WHO position paper 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2015; May 1; 90(18): 185-200.
[PMID: 25935931]
Zaman K, Dudman S, Stene-Johansen K, et al. HEV study protocol: design of a cluster-randomised, blinded trial to assess the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of the hepatitis E vaccine HEV 239 (Hecolin) in women of childbearing age in rural Bangladesh. BMJ Open 2020; 10(1): e033702.
[] [PMID: 31959609]
Kasirye R, Hume HA, Bloch EM, et al. The mirasol evaluation of reduction in infections trial (MERIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. Trials 2022; 23(1): 257.
[] [PMID: 35379302]
Peters van Ton AM, Gevers TJG, Drenth JPH. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis E: a systematic review. J Viral Hepat 2015; 22(12): 965-73.
[] [PMID: 25760481]
Li H, Zhao H, Lin H, Shen P, Liu C, Zhan S. Utilization of intravenous ribavirin among reproductive age adults in 2010–2017: A population-based study in the Yinzhou District, Ningbo City of China. Front Public Health 2021; 9: 678785.
[] [PMID: 34604152]
Mu X, Zou J, Chen J, et al. Low platelets: a new and simple prognostic marker for patients with hepatitis E virus-related acute liver failure. Hepatol Int 2022; 16(5): 1116-26.
[] [PMID: 35229273]
Ollivier-Hourmand I, Lebedel L, Lecouf A, et al. Pegylated interferon may be considered in chronic viral hepatitis E resistant to ribavirin in kidney transplant recipients. BMC Infect Dis 2020; 20(1): 522.
[] [PMID: 32677900]
Liang Z, Shu J, He Q, et al. High dose sofosbuvir and sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin therapy inhibit Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) replication in a rabbit model for acute HEV infection. Antiviral Res 2022; 199: 105274.
[] [PMID: 35247472]
Cornberg M, Pischke S, Müller T, et al. Sofosbuvir monotherapy fails to achieve HEV RNA elimination in patients with chronic hepatitis E – The HepNet SofE pilot study. J Hepatol 2020; 73(3): 696-9.
[] [PMID: 32624195]
Sastre L, García-López M, Pérez-del-Pulgar S, et al. The challenge of chronic hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients: Failure of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 43(3): 136-7.
[] [PMID: 31902599]
van Wezel EM, de Bruijne J, Damman K, et al. Sofosbuvir add-on to ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis E virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients does not result in sustained virological response. Open Forum Infect Dis 2019; 6(8): ofz346.
[] [PMID: 31404927]
Kinast V, Burkard TL, Todt D, Steinmann E, Hepatitis E, Hepatitis E. Virus Drug Development. Viruses 2019; 11(6): 485.
[] [PMID: 31141919]
Kar P, Karna R. A review of the diagnosis and management of hepatitis E. Curr Treat Options Infect Dis 2020; 12(3): 310-20.
[] [PMID: 32837339]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy