MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that repress or degrade mRNA targets to downregulate genes. In cancer occurrence, the expression of miRNAs is altered. Depending on the involvement of a certain miRNA in the pathogenetic growth of a tumor, It may be up or downregulated. The “oncogenic” action of miRNAs corresponds with upregulation, which leads to tumor proliferation and spread meanwhile the miRNAs that have been downregulated bring tumorsuppressive outcomes. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are among the genes whose expression is under their control, demonstrating that classifying them solely as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes alone is not only hindering but also incorrect. Apart from basic tumors, miRNAs may be found in nearly all human fluids and can be used for cancer diagnosis as well as clinical outcome prognostics and better response to treatment strategies. The overall variance of these tiny noncoding RNAs influences patient-specific pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-cancer medicines, driving a growing demand for personalized medicine. By now, microRNAs from tumor biopsies or blood are being widely investigated as substantial biomarkers for cancer in time diagnosis, prognosis, and, progression. With the rise of COVID-19, this paper also attempts to study recent research on miRNAs involved with deaths in lung cancer COVID patients. With the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms, personalized treatment via microRNAs has lately become a reality. The present review article describes the highlights of recent knowledge of miRNAs in various cancers, with a focus on miRNA translational applications as innovative potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators that expand person-to-person therapy options.
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